|20th C. BC|| |
The known beginning of the early Semitic alphabet is used in Egypt and Sinai penninsula.
The oldest early Semitic script is inscibed on rock in Wadi-El-Hhol, Egypt.
|19th C. BC|
|18th C. BC|
|17th C. BC|| |
The patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the first recorded Hebrews, who lived in Canaan.
|16th C. BC|
|15th C. BC|| |
The early Semitic script is inscribed on rocks at Serabit El-Kadim.
|14th C. BC|
|13th C. BC|| |
The early Semitic alphabet evolves into the middle Semitic alphabet, also called paleo-Hebrew.
|12th C. BC|| |
The Israelites leave Egypt.
|11th C. BC|| |
This abecedary is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
|10th C. BC|| |
The middle Semitic alphabet is adopted by the Greeks.
Inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
|9th C. BC|| |
Rules over the southern kingdom of Judah.
The Greek alphabet evolves into the more modern form.
Also called the Moabite stone, is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
Inscribed in Hezekiah's tunnel with the middle Semitic script.
Tel Dan Inscription
The inscription, which mentions the "house of David," is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
|8th C. BC|| |
The northern Kingdom of Israel is captured by the Assyrians and the Israelites are taken into captivity (720 BC).
Romans adopt the Greek alphabet.
Small silver scrolls, inscribed with the Aaronic blessing and other prayers, are inscirbed using the middle Semitic script and placed in a tomb at Ketef Hinnom in Israel.
|7th C. BC|| |
The Lachish inscriptions are inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
|6th C. BC|| |
The southern Kingdom is captured by the Babylonians and the Jews are taken into captivity (586 BC).
The Jews return to Israel from Babylon and rebuild the temple (516).
The middle Semitic script evolves into the late Semitic script, also called the Square Aramaic script.
The Phoenician Sarcophagus in Sidon is inscribed using the middle Semitic script.
|5th C. BC|
|4th C. BC|| |
Jewish scholars translate the Torah, the first five books of Moses, into Greek.
|3rd C. BC|| |
Written in Egypt using the late Semitic script.
2nd C. BC
Dead Sea Scrolls
The first of the Dead Sea Scrolls are written, mostly in the late Semitic script, but some are written in the middle Semitic script.
1st C. BC
|1st C. AD|| |
The second temple in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Romans (70 AD).
The Torah is translated into Aramaic by Onkelos, a Roman convert to Judaism.
The Prophets are translated into Aramaic by Jonathon Ben Uziel, a student of Hillel the Elder.
|2nd C. AD|| |
Revolt ends in failure and the Jewish people are expelled from the land of Israel. The Hebrew language ceases as their native language (135 AD).
Bar Kockba letters
The letters from General Simon Bar Kockba, during the second Jewish revolt against Rome, were written using the late Hebrew script (135 AD).
The writings and the prophets were translated into Greek by unknown translators.
|3rd C. AD|| |
The Talmud is written in the Late Semitic script.
The Hebrew Bible and the New Testament are translated into Aramaic.
|4th C. AD|
|5th C. AD|| |
A Latin translation by Jerome of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
|6th C. AD|
|7th C. AD|| |
English langauge adopts the Roman alphabet.
|8th C. AD|
|9th C. AD|
|10th C. AD|| |
The development of the vowel pointings that are inserted into the text to represent vowel sounds.
The oldest known Hebrew Bible, is written with the modern Hebrew script by Jewish Masorites.
|11th C. AD|
|12th C. AD|
|13th C. AD|
|14th C. AD|
|15th C. AD|| |
The first Bible, a copy of the Latin Vulgate, printed on moveable type.
|16th C. AD|
|17th C. AD|| |
King James Bible
English translation of the Bible published.(1611).
|18th C. AD|
|19th C. AD|| |
Begins a revival of the Hebrew language for the Jewish people.
|20th C. AD|| |
Nation of Isarel
The state of Israel is established and Hebrew becomes the official language of Israel (1948).