Biblical Hebrew eMagazine
Ancient Hebrew Research Center

February 2017        Issue #075

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    In This Issue of the BH eZine
Biblical Hebrew Word - Work (4)
Modern Hebrew Word - Market
Featured AHRC Book or DVD
Name Study - Joshua
Verse Study - Genesis 3:10
Q & A - G-d & L-RD
In the News
MT Excerpt
AHRC Excerpt
AHRC Updates
Comments & Editorial

    Biblical Hebrew Word - Work (4)

The King James Version of the Bible translates thirteen different Hebrew words (listed below) with the word "work," but each one of these Hebrew words have a specific meaning that means more than just "work.

מלאכה (m'la'khah, Strong's #4399)
עבד (Ah.B.D, Strong's #5647)
עבודה (avodah, Strong's #5656)
עשה (Ah.S.H, Strong's #6213)
מעשה (ma'a'seh, Strong's #4639)
פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466)
פועל (po'al, Strong's #6467)
פעולה (p'ul'lah, Strong's #6468)
דבר (davar, Strong's #1697)
יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018)
יד (yad, Strong's #3027)
עליליה (a'li'li'yah, Strong's #5950)

In this issue we will look at the sixth, seventh and eighth word in this list. The verb פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466) means "to perform a task of physical labor to produce something." The first time this word is used is in Exodus 15:17.

...O LORD, which thou hast made for thy abode, the sanctuary, LORD, which thy hands have established. (RSV)

The word פעולה (p'ul'lah, Strong's #6468) is the passive participle of the verb פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466) and means "something that is made from a task of physical labor." The first time this word is used is in Leviticus 19:13, where it is translated as "wages," which is what is produced from the task of a hired servant.

...The wages of a hired servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning. (RSV)

The noun פועל (po'al, Strong's #6467) is also derived from פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466) and is the task that is performed in order to produce something. This word first appears in Deuteronomy 32:4.

The Rock, his work is perfect; for all his ways are justice... (RSV)

    Modern Hebrew Word - Market

The open air market place is a very popular method of selling produce and other items in Israel. The Modern Hebrew word for the market place is שוק (shuk). This word is found three times in the Hebrew Bible (Psalm 65:10(9), Joel 2:24 and 3:13) In Psalm 65:10 (9 in Christian Bibles) the KJV reads, "thou visitest the earth, and waterest it." The word "waterest" is the translation of שוק (shuk), but in the context of the meaning of this word, it would be better translated something like, "you visited the earth and made it overflowing." This idea of overflowing is clearly seen in Joel 2:24.

The threshing floors shall be full of grain, the vats shall overflow with wine and oil. (RSV)

The "market place" is a place "overflowing" with produce.

    Featured AHRC Book or DVD
Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet
Available through the Ancient Hebrew Bookstore

The Hebrew Bible, called the "Tenach" by Jews and "Old Testament" by Christians, was originally written in the Hebrew language using an ancient pictographic, or paleo-Hebrew, script. Through the study of this ancient language and script the words of the Bible will come alive to the reader in a way never seen before. When we read the Bible from our modern western perspective the original meanings of the words within the text are lost to us. Only by understanding these words in their original Hebraic context can we read the Bible through the eyes of the original authors. This book will examine the origins and history of the ancient Hebrew language and script and their close relationship to the culture of the ancient Hebrews. Included are detailed charts of the evolution of the ancient Hebrew script as well as many other related Semitic and non-Semitic scripts. Also included are the details of the root system of the Hebrew language, and a lexicon of ancient Hebrew roots to assist the reader of the Bible with finding the original cultural context for many Hebrew words.

    Name Study - Joshua

The Hebrew name יהושע (yehoshu'a, Strong's #3091) is the combination of יהו (yeho), a short form of the name יהוה (YHWH, Strong's #3068), and the verb ישע (Y.Sh.Ah, Strong's #3467), which means "to save." The name יהושע (yehoshu'a, Strong's #3091) means "YHWH saves."

In the Septuagint (the 2,000 year old Greek translation of the Old Testament) this name is written as Ἰησοῦ (Iesou), such as it is Exodus 17:9. Because Greek does not have a "Y" they used "I" and because Greek does not have "Sh" they used "S." Sometimes the Greek transliteration will include the "s" ending for male names and is spelled Ἰησοῦς (Iesous), such as we find in Exodus 17:10.

Both Greek forms are found in the New Testament as well. The spelling Ἰησοῦ (Iesou) can be found in Luke 3:29 and the spelling Ἰησοῦς (Iesous) can be found in Hebrews 4:8.

In the New Testament this name is transliterated into English three different ways, Jose, Joshua and Jesus. In Luke 3:29 Ἰησοῦ (Iesou) is transliterated as "jose" in the KJV, "Jesus" in the ASV and "Joshua" in the RSV. In Hebrews 4:8 Ἰησοῦς (Iesous) is transliterated as "Jesus" in the KJV and "Joshua" in the ASV and RSV. In both of these verses the name Ἰησοῦ (Iesou) / Ἰησοῦς (Iesous) is used in reference to the Joshua of the Old Testament, but this same name (both spellings) are used for the messiah "Jesus" in the New Testament.

The names Jose, Joshua and Jesus are the latinized transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous), which is a transliteration of the Hebrew יהושע (yehoshu'a, Strong's #3091). From this we can conclude that "Jesus'" Hebrew name is Yehoshua (Joshua).

    Verse Study - Genesis 3:10
וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת-קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי-עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא
And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. (ASV)

וַיֹּאמֶר (vai-yo-mer) The base word is אמר (A.M.R) meaning "to say". The prefix י (y) identifies the verb as third person, masculine, singular, imperfect tense and would be translated as "he will say" or "he says". The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and he said".

אֶת (et) This word precedes the definite object of a verb telling us that the next word is what is receiving the action of the verb. This word is a grammatical tool used in Biblical Hebrew and has no equivalent in English and is therefore never translated.

קֹלְךָ (qol-kha) The base word is the noun קול (qol) meaning "sound," but is often used in the context of a "voice." The suffix ך (kha) means "of you." Combined this word means "sound of you" or "your sound."

שָׁמַעְתִּי (sha-ma-tiy) The base word is שמע (Sh.M.Ah), a verb meaning "to hear". The suffix תי (tiy) identifies the verb as first person, singular, perfect tense and is translated as "I heard."

בַּגָּן (ba-gan) The word גן (gan) is a garden. The prefix ב (ba) means "in the" – in the garden.

וָאִירָא (va-iy-ra) The base word is ירא (Y.R.A) meaning "to be afraid". The prefix א (a silent letter) identifies the verb as first person, singular, perfect tense and would be translated as "I am afraid". The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from perfect to imperfect tense and would be translated as "and I was afraid".

כִּי (kiy) This word means "for" or "because" and is used to explain what came previously.

עֵירֹם (ey-rom) This noun means "naked" or "nakedness."

אָנֹכִי (a-no-khiy) This word means "I."

וָאֵחָבֵא (va-ey-ha-vey) The base word is חבא (Hh.B.A) meaning "to withdraw," often in the context of hiding. The prefix א (a silent letter) identifies the verb as first person, singular, perfect tense and would be translated as "I will withdraw" or "I will hide." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from perfect to imperfect tense and would be translated as "and I withdrew" or "and I hid."

The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.

And he said, I heard your sound in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked and I, I withdrew.

    Q & A - G-d and L-RD

Q: Why do some people write the word "God" as "G-d" and "Lord" as "L-rd"?

A: The practice of replacing a vowel in the words "God" and "Lord" with a "-" comes from the Jewish tradition of not writing out the names of God where there is a chance that the paper (or computer file) will be discarded (or deleted). This is derived from the command "Thou shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain." It is their belief that if you write out the name and then discard it you are taking his name in vain. Any book, such as a Bible or Prayer Book, which does spell out the name of God, cannot be discarded but instead must be buried according to Jewish tradition.

    In the News

Despite detente, ancient Hebrew text 'proving' Jewish ties to Jerusalem set to stay in Istanbul
By Ilan Ben Zion (Times of Israel)

Jerusalem and Ankara may have restored diplomatic relations in 2016, but the long-awaited thaw won't see the return anytime soon of one of the most important ancient Hebrew inscriptions, found in Jerusalem and currently held in Istanbul, Israeli officials say. The Siloam Inscription, a 2,700-year-old ancient Hebrew text that provides concrete historical support for a Biblical event, is one of three ancient Jewish inscriptions unearthed in the Holy Land currently owned by the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

Despite an emphatic speech in October proclaiming the Siloam inscription's significance to Jerusalem and the Jewish people, and the newly restored diplomatic relations with Turkey, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has taken no steps to secure the artifact's repatriation, his office confirmed to The Times of Israel.

The ancient Hebrew text was discovered in 1880 in a tunnel hewn into a limestone hillside outside the Old City sometime in the late 8th century BCE. The text details the construction of the tunnel, which brought water from the Pool of Siloam to the City of David, below the southern edge of the Temple Mount. It echoes the Biblical account of the tunnel's construction under King Hezekiah.

Shortly after the inscription was discovered, it was whisked away by Ottoman authorities to Constantinople - the 1874 Ottoman Law on Antiquities stipulated that all artifacts excavated in the empire were state property. The Gezer calendar found in 1908 - a 10th century BCE inscription describing the agricultural cycle, believed to be one of the oldest Hebrew texts - and the Temple Warning inscription found in 1871, which stood on Jerusalem's Temple Mount, also wound up in Istanbul.

    MT Excerpt

Genesis 17:14-27

17:14&and an uncircumcised male whose flesh of his foreskin is not being circumcised then that being will be cut from her people, he has made my covenant broken, 17:15&and "Elohiym [Powers]" said to "Avraham [Father lifted]", you will not call out the title of "Sarai [Princess]" your woman "Sarai [Princess]" given that "Sarah [Noblewoman]" is her title, 17:16&and I will respect her and also from her I will give to you a son and I will respect her and she will exist for nations, kings of peoples will exist from her, 17:17&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" fell upon his face and he laughed and he said in his heart, will he be given in birth to one who is a son of a hundred years and if "Sarah [Noblewoman]" is the daughter of ninety years will she bring forth, 17:18&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" said to the "Elohiym [Powers]", would that "Yishma'el [El will listen]" will live to your face, 17:19&and "Elohiym [Powers]" said, nevertheless, "Sarah [Noblewoman]" your woman is giving birth for you a son and you will call out his title "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]" and I will make my covenant rise with him for a covenant of a distant time for his seed after him, 17:20&and to "Yishma'el [El will listen]", I heard you, look, I respected him and I will make him reproduce and I will make him increase with a great many, he will cause to bring forth twelve captains and I will give him for a magnificent nation, 17:21&and I will make my covenant rise with "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]" which "Sarah [Noblewoman]" will bring forth for you to this appointed time in another year, 17:22&and he finished speaking with him and "Elohiym [Powers]" went up from upon "Avraham [Father lifted]", 17:23&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" took "Yishma'el [El will listen]" his son and all of the ones born of his house and all of the ones acquired of his silver, all of the males with the men of the house of "Avraham [Father lifted]" and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the bone of this day just as "Elohiym [Powers]" spoke with him, 17:24&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" was a son of ninety nine years in his being made circumcised of the flesh of his foreskin, 17:25&and "Yishma'el [El will listen]" his son was a son of thirteen years in his being made circumcised with the flesh of his foreskin, 17:26&in the bone of this day "Avraham [Father lifted]" was circumcised and "Yishma'el [El will listen]" his son, 17:27&and all of the men of his house born of the house and acquired of silver from a son of a foreign one were circumcised with him,

For additional details on this new translation, check out the MT Website.

    AHRC Excerpt

Yeshua, the Son of Man
By Jeff A. Benner

The phrase "Son of man" appears multiple times in the Old and New Testaments.

In the Old Testament the Hebrew phrase בן אדם (ben adam) translates as "son of man" and is used for a person, any named or unnamed person.

In the Greek New Testament the phrase "son of man" is υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (huios tou anthrōpou), but is always used in reference to Yeshua (Jesus), either by Yeshua himself in reference to himself or by others in reference to Yeshua.

If Yeshua spoke Hebrew, and he used the Hebrew phrase ben adam, then he was simply claiming to be "a person." Even if Yeshua spoke Greek, which I highly doubt, he would have used the phrase huios tou anthrōpou, which is the Greek translation of the Hebrew ben adam, and is still simply claiming to be "a person."

However, there is one place in the Old Testament where a different phrase is used for "son of man."

"I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him." (KJV, Daniel 7:13)

A portion of the Book of Daniel, including this verse, is written in Aramaic and the Aramaic for "son of man" is בר אנוש (bar enosh). Now, if Yeshua were speaking Hebrew all the time, but used the Aramaic phrase bar enosh instead of ben adam, in reference to himself, then his listeners would know that he was calling himself the bar enosh from Daniel 7:13, the one who "came with the clouds of heaven."

This is one of the many reasons why I believe that Yeshua always spoke in Hebrew. If Yeshua was speaking in Greek and he used the phrase huios tou anthrōpou, he is just calling himself a man. If Yeshua was speaking in Aramaic and used the phrase bar enosh, he is still just calling himself a man, as in Aramaic bar enosh means nothing more than a "son of man." But if he were speaking in Hebrew, his listeners would expect the phrase ben adam if he were simply referring to himself as a "man," but if he changed to Aramaic for this one phrase, then he is definitely referencing Daniel 7:13, a well-known messianic prophecy in the first century.

    AHRC Updates

New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.

Recommended Video Lectures - 1/20/2017

Manners and Customs of Bible Lands - 1/19/2017

Translating and defining words - 1/18/2017

Is Hebrew the First alphabet? - 1/16/2017

    Comments & Editorial

Do you have a comment or personal insight into the articles in this issue of the E-Zine or found any errors needing correction? If so, let us know.

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