Biblical Hebrew eMagazine
Ancient Hebrew Research Center

May 2017        Issue #077

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In This Issue

Biblical Hebrew Word - Work (6)
Modern Hebrew Word - Taxi
Featured AHRC Book or DVD
Name Study - Josiah
Verse Study - Genesis 3:12
Q & A - Translations
In the News
MT Excerpt
AHRC Excerpt
AHRC Updates
Comments & Editorial

Biblical Hebrew Word - Work (6)

The King James Version of the Bible translates thirteen different Hebrew words (listed below) with the word "work," but each one of these Hebrew words have a specific meaning that means more than just "work.

מלאכה (m'la'khah, Strong's #4399)
עבד (Ah.B.D, Strong's #5647)
עבודה (avodah, Strong's #5656)
עשה (Ah.S.H, Strong's #6213)
מעשה (ma'a'seh, Strong's #4639)
פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466)
פועל (po'al, Strong's #6467)
פעולה (p'ul'lah, Strong's #6468)
דבר (davar, Strong's #1697)
יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018)
יד (yad, Strong's #3027)
עליליה (a'li'li'yah, Strong's #5950)

In this issue we will look at the word יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018). This Hebrew word appears 16 times in the Hebrew Bible. It is translated as "labour" 15 times in the King James Version and as "work" only once.

Is it good unto thee that thou shouldest oppress, that thou shouldest despise the work of thine hands, and shine upon the counsel of the wicked? (KJV, Job 10:3)

The noun יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018) is derived from the verbal root יגע (Y.G.Ah, Strong's #3021), which means to "be weary," to be exhausted from vigorous labor. Also derived from this verbal root is the noun יגע (ya'gey'a, Strong's #3023), meaning "weary," the state of being exhausted from vigorous work. Related in meaning to these words is the noun of this article, יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018), and means "toil," the act of working one's self to exhaustion.

Modern Hebrew Word - Taxi

The Hebrew word for "taxi" is מוֹנִית (mo'niyt) and the plural form of this word is מוֹנִיוֹת (mo'niy'ot). As there were no taxis in Biblical times, obviously, this Hebrew word was created in the last century. But like all new Hebrew words, their root words can be found in the Bible. In the case of mo'niyt, the root word can be found in the following passage.

And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: So that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then may thy seed also be numbered. (ASV, Genesis 13:16)

The root of this word is מנה (M.N.H, Strong's #3021), meaning to "count." This root was chosen for the word "taxi" by the Academy of the Hebrew Language for the reason that a Taxi "counts" the miles (or kilometers in Israel) the taxi travels to determine the passenger's fare.

Featured AHRC Book or DVD

New Testament Greek to Hebrew Dictionary

Recent archeological and linguistic evidence reveals that the Jews of the New Testament era spoke Hebrew, not Greek as has been taught for so many years. With this revelation, we can conclude that the teachings of the New Testament were first conveyed, either in spoken or written form, in Hebrew, which means that the New Testament must be understood from a Hebraic perspective and not a Greek one. The first step in this process is to translate the Greek words of the New Testament into Hebrew. While translating the Greek words into Hebrew may sound overwhelming for many, it is in fact, a very simple process that anyone can perform, even without any prior studies in Greek or Hebrew. All that is required is a Strong's Concordance and this book. This book lists the five hundred most frequent Greek words of the New Testament and provides their Hebrew translations and Hebraic definitions, with all Greek and Hebrew words cross- referenced with Strong's numbers. This book is available in printed and ebook formats.

Name Study - Josiah

This Biblical name has made a comeback today, in fact it is the name of my firstborn son. In Biblical Hebrew this name is written as יאשיה (yo'shi'yah, Strong's #2977). This name is a combination of two words. The first is יאשי (yo'shi), which means "he heals me," and is derived from the verbal root אשה (A.Sh.H), which does not appear in the Hebrew Bible, but does in other Semitic languages such as Arabic, and means to "heal." The second is the word יה (Yah, Strong's #3050), the shortened form of the Tetragrammaton יהוה (YHWH, Strong's #3068). When these two words are combined in the name יאשיה (yo'shi'yah, Strong's #2977) they mean "Yah heals me."

Verse Study - Genesis 3:12

וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי מִן הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל
And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. (ASV)

וַיֹּאמֶר (vai-yo-mer) The base word is אמר (A.M.R) meaning "to say." The prefix י (y) identifies the subject of the verb as third person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense and would be translated as "he will say" or "he says." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and he said."

הָאָדָם (ha-a-dam) The base word is אדם (adam) meaning "human." The prefix ה means "the" – the human. This word is the subject of the previous verb.

הָאִשָּׁה (ha-i-shah) The prefix ה means "the." The word אשה, the feminine form of the masculine noun איש meaning "man," means "woman" – the woman.

אֲשֶׁר (a-sher) This is a common Hebrew word meaning "which" or "who."

נָתַתָּה (na-ta-tah) The base word is נתן (N.T.N) meaning "to give." The suffix תה (tah) identifies the verb as second person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as perfect tense and would be translated as "you gave."

עִמָּדִי (i-ma-diy) The base word is עמד (iy'mad) meaning "by," in the sense of being next to. The suffix י (iy) means "me." Combined, these two words mean "by me" or "with me."

הִוא (hiy) This word means "she."

נָתְנָה (nat-nah) The base word is נתן (N.T.N) meaning "to give." The suffix ה (ah) identifies the verb as third person, feminine, singular and the tense of the verb as perfect tense and would be translated as "she gave."

לִּי (liy) The letter ל (l) is a prefix meaning "to" or "for." The letter י (iy) is a suffix meaning "me." Combined, these two letters mean "to me" or "for me."

מִן (min) This word means "from."

הָעֵץ (ha-eyts) The noun עץ (eyts) means "tree" or "trees." The prefix ה (ha) means "the" - "the tree(s)."

וָאֹכֵל (va-o-kheyl) The base word is אכל (A.K.L) meaning "to eat." The prefix א (silent) identifies the verb as first person, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense and would be translated as "I will eat" or "I eat." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and I ate."

The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.

And the man said, the woman whom you gave was by me, she gave to me from the tree, and I ate.

Q & A - Translations

Q: Which English translations do you use in your teachings?

A: If I want to show how a particular translator translated a particular verse, I will use that specific translation. I will often use the American Standard Version (ASV), especially on printed material in the eZine and other publications, because it is in the Public Domain and there are no copyright issues using this translation. I will also use the Revised Standard Version (RSV) frequently because it is easy to read and in my opinion better than other translations. In addition, the RSV, which is a newer translation, has incorporated some of the discoveries from the Dead Sea Scrolls and other more recent discoveries.

In the News

1,800-year-old Hebrew stone inscriptions found in ancient Galilee synagogue
By The Jerusalem Post

An 1,800-year-old limestone column capital engraved with two Hebrew inscriptions dating to the Roman period was discovered during a recent restoration and conservation project carried out in an ancient synagogue in Peki'in, located near the Western Galilee.

The Israel Antiquities Authority said the work is being conducted by the Council for Conservation of Heritage Sites in Israel as part of a project by the Jerusalem Affairs and Heritage Ministry.

"The stone was found upside down in the building's courtyard, and upon discovery of the inscriptions, archeologists from the IAA arrived at the site to examine the special find," the Authority said in a statement on Tuesday. "A preliminary analysis of the engravings suggests that these are dedicatory inscriptions honoring donors to the synagogue."

According to Yoav Lerer, the IAA's inspector of the Western Galilee, the Talmudic and Midrashic sources tell of Galilean sages who lived in Peki'in, including Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, who hid from the Romans in a cave.

However, he noted that there are scholars who disagree with the identification of the location of Peki'in.

"I believe that these inscriptions will add an important tier to our knowledge about the Jewish settlement in the village of Peki'in during the Roman and Byzantine periods," said Lerer.

MT Excerpt

Genesis 18:16-24

18:16&and the men rose from there and they looked down upon the face of "Sedom [Secret]" and "Avraham [Father lifted]" was walking with them to send them off, 18:17&and "YHWH [He exists]" had said, am I concealing from "Avraham [Father lifted]" what I am doing, 18:18&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" will greatly exist for a magnificent and multiple nation and all of the nations of the land will be respected with him, 18:19&given that I knew him that what he will direct his sons and his house after him and they will guard the road of "YHWH [He exists]" to do correctness and judgement so that "YHWH [He exists]" is bringing upon "Avraham [Father lifted]" with what he spoke upon him, 18:20&and "YHWH [He exists]" said, given that the outcry of "Sedom [Secret]" and "Ghamorah [Rebellion]" had increased in number and given that their error had become very heavy, 18:21&please, I will go down to her and I will see, is her outcry that is coming to me completed, if not I will know, 18:22&and the men turned from there and they walked unto "Sedom [Secret]" and yet again "Avraham [Father lifted]" was standing to the face of "YHWH [He exists]", 18:23&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" drew near and he said, moreover, will you consume the correct with the lost, 18:24&possibly there are fifty correct ones in the midst of the city, will your anger consume and not lift up to that place of the fifty correct ones which are within her,

AHRC Excerpt

Jews, Greeks, Gentiles and Proselytes: Who are they?

As the gospel of Yeshua's message was spreading throughout the land, mostly documented in the book of Acts, three people groups are mentioned; the Jews, the Greeks and the Gentiles. Unfortunately due to misinterpretations and mistranslations of the text, there is a lot of misunderstanding over who these people are.

The Gentiles

The Greek word ethnos (Strong's #1484) literally means "nation." This word is used in the 2,000 year old Greek Septuagint to translate the Hebrew word goy (Strong's #1471), which also means "nation." A nation is any group of people living and working under one rule. Many different nations are mentioned in the Bible including; the Canaanites, Egyptians, Moabites, Arameans, and others. But more importantly even Israel is called a "nation."

And I will make of thee [Israel] a great nation (goy)... (Genesis 12:2, KJV)

... and of good report among all the nation (ethnos) of the Jews... (Acts 10:22, KJV)

Translating the Greek word ethnos in the New Testament as "gentile" is problematic. While the word "gentile" does mean "one belongs to a tribe or clan," it has come universally mean a non-Jew. But as we have seen, the words goy and ethnos do not mean a non-Jew, they mean "one who belongs to a tribe or clan."

Who are the ethnon (nations - plural of ethnos) mentioned in the New Testament?

I am sure that most people are familiar with the "ten lost tribes" from the northern "nation" of Israel that was taken into captivity by the Assyrians in the eighth century B.C. It believed by most that these "ten lost tribes" are "lost," but this is not exactly true, at least not in the sense that most people assume.

And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher... (Luke 2:36, RSV)

The tribe of Asher is one of the "ten lost tribes," but as we can see, Anna, from the tribe of Asher, is not "lost." The "lost" tribes are not "lost" in the sense of "missing," but in the sense of walking away from the teachings of Yahweh. Even Yeshua mentions that his mission was to reach the "lost" tribes and commissions his disciples to do the same.

But he [Yeshua] answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. (Matthew 15:24, KJV)

But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. (Matthew 10:6, KJV)

Even James mentions that he is a servant to the "twelve tribes," which would include the "ten lost tribes."

James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. (James 1:1, KJV)

When Paul preached to the "nations" in the Book of Acts, he was doing what Yeshua commanded, preaching to the "lost" tribes, the lost goy/ethnos of Israel.

AHRC Updates

New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.

Ancient Semitic Inscription - 3/19/2017

Comments & Editorial

Do you have a comment or personal insight into the articles in this issue of the E-Zine or found any errors needing correction? If so, let us know.

Dru Neikirk wrote in regards to the last issues AHRC excerpt;

Have you heard of the Dalite class in india? They are the lowest class in India and known as the “Untouchables." Interesting how this Sanskrit word may relate to the Hebrew root DAL. See

Viveka Sjulmark also wrote in regards to the AHRC excerpt;

Are you aware [that] in the Indian language, the word for poor seems to be 'DALET'. I have no knowledge of the Indian language but the cast of the 'untochables' - the poorest of the poor, is 'dalet'. See the YouTube video "Discrimination by Caste : Dalit Reality - Poverty, Health & Nutrition." Coincidence or from the Hebrew language?

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