In This Issue
Biblical Hebrew Word - Work (7)
The King James Version of the Bible translates thirteen different Hebrew words (listed below) with the word "work," but each one of
these Hebrew words have a specific meaning that means more than just "work.
מלאכה (m'la'khah, Strong's #4399) |
עבד (Ah.B.D, Strong's #5647)
עבודה (avodah, Strong's #5656)
עשה (Ah.S.H, Strong's #6213)
מעשה (ma'a'seh, Strong's #4639)
פעל (P.Ah.L, Strong's #6466)
פועל (po'al, Strong's #6467)
פעולה (p'ul'lah, Strong's #6468)
דבר (davar, Strong's #1697)
יגיע (y'gi'a, Strong's #3018)
יד (yad, Strong's #3027)
עליליה (a'li'li'yah, Strong's #5950)
In this issue we will look at the word יד (yad, Strong's #3027). This Hebrew word appears over 1,600 times in the Hebrew Bible and means “hand.” This Hebrew word is translated once in the King James Version as “work.”
And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses. (KJV, Exodus 14:31)
This is one of the issues that I have with modern translations of the Bible; they take a lot of liberties when translating the text and will often remove the more concrete meaning of a Hebrew word and replace it with a more abstract word in order to make the text flow better in English.
Modern Hebrew Word - Kilometer
The Hebrew word for "kilometer" is קילומטר, which is a transliteration that is pronounced qilometer. When a word is transliterated into Hebrew, and it includes a “k” sound in the word, the Hebrew transliteration with always use the letter quph (ק) and not a kaph (כ). Also, when the word includes a “t” sound, the Hebrew transliteration will use the letter tet (ט) and not a tav (ת). The word קילומטר is usually written with the acronym ק"מ (when the symbol -"- appears in a Hebrew word it identifies it as an acronym), where the quph (ק) stands for the word “kilo” and the mem (מ) stand for the word “meter.”
Featured AHRC Product
How to do a Hebrew Word Study (On-line course)
Available through the Ancient Hebrew Bookstore
The Hebrew Bible (called the Tenakh by Jews and the Old Testament by Christians) was written by Hebrews whose language and culture were very different from our own. A language is closely tied to the culture of those who speak the language. In the case of the Hebrews, who were a nomadic and agrarian people, their language was closely connected to that culture and lifestyle. When we read the Bible, our 20th Century culture and lifestyle will often influence how we interpret it, therefore it is essential that we read and study the Bible from their culture and perspective so that we can better understand the Bible.
When most people do a word study they will open up Strong's dictionary, look up the word they are studying, read that definition and then move on. But there is much more to a thorough study of a Hebrew word, which will open up a whole new world to the reader. This course will teach you how to dig deeper into the meanings of the words of the Bible to uncover the more in-depth understanding of the words in the Bible. Even if you do not know any Hebrew, the resources and tools available to you will provide you with a wealth of information.
With this course, you will have the ability to go at your own pace, repeat lectures as often as necessary, access the course from any computer or device, download the lectures for viewing offline and have a lifetime access to the course and its resources.
Name Study - Aviyad
It is not uncommon for some languages to combine words together to form one word. We call these compound words. In English, some examples of compound words are; grassroots, upstanding, moonshine and whirlwind. The Greek language of the New Testament is filled with such words. An example being the word προάγω (pro’ago, Strong’s #4254), which is the combination of the word προ (pro, Strong’s #4253), meaning “before” (where we get our prefix “pre,” pun intended), and άγω (ago, Strong’s #71), meaning “bring.” The word προάγω (pro’ago, Strong’s #4254) means “what came before.”
Hebrew never combines words together, except in names. The Hebrew phrase אבי דן (aviy dan) is the word אבי (aviy) meaning “my father” and דן (dan) meaning “judge – my father is judge. But this phrase is written as a compound word in Numbers 1:11 and is therefore a name – Aviydan.
In Isaiah 9:6 we find the compound word אביעד (aviyad). This is the word אבי (aviy) meaning “my father” and עד (ad) meaning “continues” – my father continues. Because this word is written as a compound word, it is a name that should be transliterated (Aviyad) and not translated (my father is continues). However, in the Dead Sea Scrolls, this word is written as two different words - אבי עד (aviy ad), which should be translated and not transliterated.
The phrase אל גבור (el gibbor) comes before the word אביעד (aviyad) and means “mighty god.” Therefore the entire phrase אל גבור אביעד (el gibbor aviyad) should be translated as “the mighty god of Aviyad.” But to make things even more confusing, in the Dead Sea Scrolls the phrase אל גבור (el gibbor) is written as a compound word – אלגבר (elgibbor) and should therefore be understood as a name – Elgibbor. Therefore, from the Dead Sea Scrolls, this entire phrase is written as אלגבר אבי עד (elgibbor aviy ad) and should be translated as “Elgibbor is my father continuing.”
I am of the opinion that the last part of Isaiah 9:6 is a string of names…
For a child was born to us, a son was given to us, the government is upon his shoulders, his name is Pele (wonderful), Yo'eyts (counselor), Elgibbor (mighty god), Aviyad (my father continues), sarshalom (ruler of peace).
Verse Study - Genesis 3:13
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃
And Jehovah God said unto the woman, What is this thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. (ASV)
וַיֹּאמֶר (vai-yo-mer) The base word is אמר (A.M.R) meaning "to say." The prefix י (y) identifies the subject of the verb as third person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense and would be translated as "he will say" or "he says." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and he said."
יְהוָה (YHWH) This is the Tetragrammaton, the four letter name of the God of the Hebrews, usually pronounced Yahweh. There are many theories as to the origin and meaning of this name but most likely comes from the verb הוה (hawah) meaning to exist. The yud added to the beginning identifies the subject of the verb as third person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense or "he exists."
אֱלֹהִים (e-lo-hiym) The base word is אלוה (e-lo-ah), which is commonly translated as "God" or "god," but more literally means "one of power and authority." The suffix ים (iym) is the masculine plural so this word means "gods" or "ones of power and authority." However, this plural noun is often used as a name for YHWH. Because this is being used as a name, it should be transliterated as "Elohiym" rather than translating it with the English word "God."
לָאִשָּׁה (la-i-shah) The prefix ל means "to." The word אשה, the feminine form of the masculine noun איש meaning "man," means "woman" – to the woman.
מַה (mah) This word means "what."
זֹּאת (zot) This word means "this."
עָשִׂית (a-siyt) The base word is the verb עשה (A.S.H), which means "to do." The suffix ית (iyt) identifies the subject of the verb as second person, feminine, singular and the tense of the verb as perfect tense and would be translated as "you did."
וַתֹּאמֶר (va-to-mer) The base word is אמר (A.M.R) meaning "to say." The prefix ת (t) identifies the subject of the verb as third person, feminine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense and would be translated as "she will say" or "she says." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and she said."
הָאִשָּׁה (ha-i-shah) The prefix ה (ha) means "the." The word אשה, the feminine form of the masculine noun איש meaning "man," means "woman" – the woman.
הַנָּחָשׁ (ha-na-hhash) The base word is the noun נחש (nahhash) meaning a "serpent," with the prefix ה (ha) meaning "the" – the serpent.
הִשִּׁיאַנִי (hi-shiy-a-niy) The base word is the verb נשא (N.Sh.A) meaning to “deceive.” The ה (hi) prefix and the י (y) infix identify this verb as a hiphil (causative) verb and would then mean “cause to deceive.” The ני (niy) suffix identifies the object of the verb as first person singular and the tense of the verb as perfect – caused me to be deceived.
וָאֹכֵל (va-o-kheyl) The base word is אכל (A.K.L) meaning "to eat." The prefix א (silent) identifies the verb as first person, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect tense and would be translated as "I will eat" or "I eat." The prefix ו (v) means "and" and when prefixed to a verb will usually reverse the tense, in this case from imperfect to perfect tense and would be translated as "and I ate."
The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.
And YHWH Elohiym said to the woman, what is this you did, and the woman said, the serpent caused me to be deceived, and I ate.
Q & A - Circle
Q: Does the Hebrew word translated as “circle” in Isaiah 40:22 imply a flat or globe earth?
A: Neither. The Hebrew word is הוג (hug, Strong’s #2329) does mean a “circle,” but it can also mean a “compass,” which is a tool for making a circle. While our Greco-Roman Western minds are comfortable with speculating about things that are unknown, the Hebraic Eastern mind is not and will only relate to things that can be seen or experienced. The author of Isaiah is not speaking about the planet “earth,” but the “land.” The Hebrew word ארץ (erets, Strong’s #776), while frequently translated as “earth” does not mean the “planet.” A better translation is “land” or “region.” If you were to stand on a large flat plain and look at the horizon all around you, you would notice that the horizon forms a “circle,” like a compass would make if the stationary point of the compass was at your position. The passage in question is speaking about the “land” contained within that “circle.”
In the News
Purdue researcher verifies the existence of 53 people in Hebrew Bible
Lawrence Mykytiuk cannot document that everything in the Bible took place as written. But the Purdue professor says he can prove many of the people written about did, in fact, exist.
“While some would put their hand on the Bible and really mean it when they take an oath, a few revisionist academics would throw it out and say, ‘That’s creative writing.’ I was looking for concrete, objective evidence outside of the Bible that would help build the case,” Mykytiuk, an associate professor of library science, said in a press release.
Mykytiuk (pronounced MICK-ee-took) has added three names to the previously published 50 Old Testament individuals in the Bible, beginning with King David, all of whom he says he has verified through his research. The three new people are Tattenai (also translated as Tatnai), a Persian governor during the time of Ezra (after the Babylonian exile); and two high officials of Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II: Nergal-sharezer, called the “samgar” official, and Nebuzaradan, “the chief of the guards.”
Tattenai is mentioned in the fifth chapter of the book of Ezra. He also is mentioned outside of the Bible in a letter on a clay tablet from Persian King Darius I the Great, in the year 502 B.C.
According to the Bible, Nergal-sharezer and Nebuzaradan were high officials of King Nebuchadnezzar II, who in 586 B.C. destroyed the First Temple, as well as Jerusalem, and exiled most of the remaining population of Judah. They are mentioned at the scene of the destruction in Jeremiah 39:3 and 39:9, respectively, and Nebuzaradan also is mentioned in 2 Kings, Chapter 25. Their king included them in a contemporaneous list of his courtiers that was written on clay tablets.
18:25&far be it to you from doing in this manner to kill the correct with the lost and the correct will be like the lost, far be it to you, will the judge of all of the land not do judgement, 18:26&and "YHWH [He exists]" said, if I will find in "Sedom [Secret]" fifty correct ones in the midst of the city I will lift up to all of the place on account of them, 18:27&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" answered and he said, please look, I take upon to speak to "Adonai [My lords]" and I am powder and dust, 18:28&possibly the fifty correct ones diminish by five, will you destroy all of the city with the five, and he said, I will not cause damage if I will find there forty-five, 18:29&and he continued to speak to him and he said, possibly forty will be found there, and he said, I will not do on account of the forty, 18:30&and he said to "Adonai [My lords]", please do not flare up and I will speak, possibly thirty will be found there, and he said, I will not do if I will find there thirty, 18:31&and he said, please look, I will take upon to speak to "Adonai [My lords]", possibly twenty will be found there, and he said, I will not do on account of the twenty, 18:32&and he said to "Adonai [My lords]", please do no flare up and I will speak, surely this time, possibly ten will be found there, and he said I will not do on account of the ten, 18:33&and "YHWH [He exists]" walked just as he finished to speak to "Avraham [Father lifted]" and "Avraham [Father lifted]" turned back to his place,
A History of the Hebrew Word for One
When I began writing this article, I intended to provide a simple explanation of the history and use of the Hebrew word for "one" in the Hebrew Bible. But as I started writing, it soon became clear that in order to provide a proper and thorough explanation, I was going to have to give some background information about Hebrew grammar and how adjectives and numbers work in the Hebrew language, so please bear with me.
In Genesis 1:16 is the phrase "great lights." The word "lights" is a plural noun and "great" is the adjective modifying the noun. In Hebrew, an adjective is going to match the number and gender of the noun it is modifying. In the Hebrew, this phrase is written as גדלים ארות (orot gedoliym). The Hebrew word for "lights" is ארות (orot), which is the plural form of the word אור (or) meaning "light" and is a masculine plural noun, so the Hebrew word for great, the adjective, is also written in the plural masculine form, which is גדלים (gedoliym). Also notice that the adjective follows the noun that it modifies, rather than preceding it like we do in the English language.
Numbers are adjectives and in Hebrew an adjective will be either masculine or feminine, based on the gender of the noun the number is modifying. For instance, in Genesis 6:10 is the phrase "three sons." In Hebrew this is written as שלשה בנים (sh'loshah baniym). Baniym is the word for "sons," and שלשה (sh'loshah, Strong's #7969) is the word for "three." Because the word baniym is masculine, the masculine form for the number three (sh'loshah) is used. In Deuteronomy 19:2 is the phrase שלוש ערים (shalosh a'riym). The word ערים (ariym) means "cities," and שלוש (shalosh, Strong's #7969) is the word for "three." Because the word for "cities" is feminine, the feminine form of the number three (shalosh) is used. Note: we learned that a Hebrew adjective will follow a noun and will match the gender and number of the noun it is modifying. While a number will match the gender of the noun, it will not match the number, and instead of following the noun, it will precede it.
Now let's take a look at the phrase "thirty shekels" as found in Exodus 21:32. In Hebrew this is written as שלשים שקלים (sh'lo'shiym sh'qa'liym). The word שקלים (sh'qa'liym) means shekels and is the plural form of the word שקל (shekel). The word שלשים (sh'lo'shiym) is the plural form of the number שלוש (shalosh) meaning "three." When working with numbers, the plural form of a number represents that number times ten (i.e. 3x10=30). So the word שלשים (sh'loshiym, Strong's #7970), the plural form of שלוש (shalosh), means "thirty." Let's take a look at another example. In Genesis 7:4 is the phrase ארבעים יום (ar'ba'iym yom). The word yom is a singular noun meaning "day." The word ar'ba'iym, the plural form of ארבע meaning "four," means "forty." So again, the number (an adjective) precedes the noun instead of following it, and is in the plural form, to represent the number forty, even though the noun it modifies is in the singular.
The Hebrew words for one, two, ten and twenty, work a little differently. The masculine form of "two" is שנים (sh'na'yim) and the feminine form is שתים (sh'ta'yim). The word for "ten" is עשרה (as'sa'rah-masc.) and עשר (e'ser-fem.) and the number for twenty is עשרים (es'riym), the plural form of the Hebrew word for "ten." The masculine form for the Hebrew word meaning "one" is אחד (ehhad, Strong's #259) and the feminine form is אחת (ahhat, Strong's #259). Below is a chart for the masculine and feminine and plural forms for the Hebrew numbers one through nine.
New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.
Comments & Editorial
Do you have a comment or personal insight into the articles in this issue of the E-Zine or found any errors needing correction? If so, let us know.
Was this email forwarded to you?
Would you like to have new issues of the eZine emailed to you?