Ancient Hebrew Research Center
Biblical Hebrew eMagazine
March, 2018
Issue #084
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In This Issue

Biblical Hebrew Word - Resurrection
Modern Hebrew Word - Science
Featured AHRC Product - Introduction to AH
Name Study - Aramnaharaim
Verse Study - Genesis 3:17
Q & A - Hammurabi
In the News - Isaiah's Signature
MT Excerpt - Genesis 20:10-18
AHRC Excerpt - Foods
AHRC Updates
Comments & Editorial

Biblical Hebrew Word - Resurrection

But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, (ASV, Matthew 22:31)

While the word "resurrection" does not appear in English translations of the Tanakh (Old Testament), it does appear in the New Testament as a translation for the Greek word αναστασις (anastasis, Strong's #386). This noun is derived from the word ανιστημι (anistemi, Strong's #450), which means "to stand up" or "to rise up." This Greek word appears once in the Septuagint, a 2,000 year old Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible.

And behold I establish [in the sense of something standing firm] my covenant with you, and with your seed after you, (LXE, Genesis 9:9)

In the Peshitta, a 5th Century Aramaic New Testament, the word used for "resurrection" in the verse above is the word קימתא (q'yam'ta). This Aramaic word translates into Hebrew as תקומה (tequmah, Strong's #8617).

In Modern Hebrew, the word for "resurrection" is תקומה (tequmah), the same word from the Peshitta. This word is derived from the verbal root קום (Q.W.M, Strong's #6965) meaning "to stand up" or "to rise up." The word תקומה (tequmah) is found once in the Hebrew Bible.

And they shall stumble one upon another, as it were before the sword, when none pursueth: and ye shall have no power to stand before your enemies. (ASV, Leviticus 26:37)

From all of this, we can gather that the ancient understanding of the "resurrection of the dead," is the "rising up of the dead, or more literally, the "standing up of the dead."

Modern Hebrew Word - Science

In the Modern Hebrew language the word for "science" is מדע (mada, Strong's #4093). This word does appear in the Hebrew Bible where it is usually translated as "knowledge," but once as "science" in the King James Version.

Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans. (KJV, Daniel 1:4)

As the Hebrews did not practice science, as we understand the term, I do not believe that "science" is a good translation for this word and I prefer "insight," This word is derived from the parent root דע (da, Strong's #1843) also meaning "knowledge."

Many of the Modern Hebrew words for the different branches of science are transliterations of their Greek names such as these examples.

  • Biology – ביולוגיה (biologi'ah)
  • Cosmology – קוסמולוגיה (qosmologi'ah)
  • Geology – גאולוגיה (geologi'ah)

Featured AHRC Product - Introduction to Ancient Hebrew (DVD)

This video examines various aspects of the Ancient Hebrew language including; the relationship between the Hebrew words of the Bible and the Ancient Hebrew culture; the differences between Greek and Hebrew concepts such as time and space; the meaning of the letters in the ancient pictographic Hebrew script; and the root system of the Ancient Hebrew language.

Name Study - Aramnaharaim

In Hebrew the name Aramnaharaim is written as two words – ארם נהרים (aram naharayim, Strong's #763). The word ארם (aram, Strong's #758) is the name for the region of Aram, modern day Syria. The inhabitants of Aram were the Arameans, and their language is called Aramean or Aramaic. This word is not used in the Bible as a noun, but it means "elevated," "a high place."

The word נהרים (naharayim) is the double plural (the standard plural suffix is iym, but the double plural suffix is yim) form of the noun נהר (nahar, Strong's #5104) meaning "river." So the double plural form, נהרים (naharayim), means "two rivers."

When these two words are combined they mean "the high place between the two rivers." The place of ארם נהרים (aram naharayim, Strong's #763) is known today as Mesopotamia, which is Greek for "between (meso) the rivers (potamia)."

This name appears six times in the Hebrew Bible. In the King James Version of the Bible this name is transliterated as Aramnaharaim once (Psalm 60:1), but translated as Mesopotamia the other five times (Genesis 24:10, Deuteronomy 23:4, Judges 3:8,10 and 1 Chronicles 19:6).

Verse Study - Genesis 3:17

וְקֹוץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃
thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; (ASV)

וְקֹוץ (v'qots) This is the noun קוץ (qots) meaning "thorn." The prefix ו (v) means "and."

וְדַרְדַּר (v'dar'dar) This is the noun דרדר (dar'dar) meaning "thorn" or "thistle." The prefix ו (v) means "and."

תַּצְמִיחַ (tats'mi'ahh) This is the verb צנח (Ts.M.Hh) meaning "to sprout." The prefix ת (ta) identifies the tense of the verb as imperfect and the subject of the verb as third person, feminine, singular – she will sprout. The י (i) that is placed inside the verb identifies the form of this verb as a hiphil (causative) verb – she will make sprout. (Note: The "she" is referring to the "ground" in the previous verse, which is a feminine noun)

לָךְ (lakh) This is the prefix ל (la) meaning "to" or "for" and the suffix ך (kh) meaning "you."

וְאָכַלְתָּ (v'a'khal'ta) This is the verb אכל (A.K.L) meaning "to eat." The suffix ת (ta) identifies the tense of the verb as perfect and the subject of the verb as second person, masculine, singular – you ate. The prefix ו (v) means "and," but also reverses the tense of the verb – you will eat.

אֶת (et) This word precedes the definite object of the previous verb.

עֵשֶׂב (ey'sev) This noun means "green plants."

הַשָּׂדֶה (ha'sa'deh) This is the noun שדה (sadeh) meaning "field" with the prefix ה (ha) meaning "the."

The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.

And thorns and thistles she will make sprout for you and you will eat the green plants of the field.

Q & A - Hammurabi

Q: Are the laws given to Moses by God at Mt. Sinai just a copy of the laws of Hammurabi (c. 1810 BC to c. 1750 BC)?

A: There are many similarities to the commands given by God at Mt. Sinai and the Hammurabi codes and many have suspected that Moses was copying from the Hammurabi codes, but there is an alternative explanation. It is assumed by many that God first gave the Torah (a word meaning "teachings," but often translated as "law") to Moses on Mt. Sinai, but this is not the case. We know from Genesis 26:5 that Abraham obeyed God's Torah (translated as laws in that verse). It is apparent that God gave the Torah to Adam who passed it down to his children, who knew about such commands as murder and sacrifices, who passed it down to their children, and etc. Hammurabi would have been one of those descendants.

In the News - Isaiah's Signature

Has the 'Signature' of Biblical Prophet Isaiah Been Discovered?
By Kristin Romey (National Geographic)

A clay seal from the eighth century B.C. that was discovered in a Jerusalem excavation may bear the name of the biblical prophet Isaiah, according to a new article in Biblical Archaeology Review.

In the article, titled "Is This the Prophet Isaiah's Signature?," author and archaeologist Eilat Mazar suggests that the ancient Hebrew script impressed into the damaged half-inch oval of clay may have once read "Belonging to Isaiah the prophet."

If the interpretation of the lettering on the 2,700-year-old seal is correct, it would be the first reference to Isaiah outside of the Bible. The Hebrew prophet is described as a counselor to the Judean king Hezekiah, who ruled from the late eighth to the early seventh century B.C.

The clay seal, or bulla, was one of 34 found during Mazar's 2009 Ophel excavations at the base of the southern wall of Jerusalem's Temple Mount, or Haram al-Sharif. The seals, or bullae, were recovered from small Iron Age (1200-586 B.C.) garbage pits, outside the wall of what Mazar describes as a royal bakery leveled in the 586 B.C. Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem.

MT Excerpt - Genesis 20:10-18

20:10&and "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" said to "Avraham [Father lifted]", what did you see given that you did this word, 20:11&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" said, given that I said, fearfulness of "Elohiym [Powers]" is not at all in this place and they will kill me because of my woman, 20:12&and indeed she is my sister, daughter of my father, surely not the daughter of my mother and she exists to me for a woman, 20:13&and it came to pass just as "Elohiym [Powers]" caused me to wander from the house of my father and I said to her, this is your kindness which you will do by me to all of the places which we will come unto, say for me he is my brother, 20:14&and "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" took flocks and cattle and servants and maids and he gave to "Avraham [Father lifted]" and turned "Sarah [Noblewoman]" his woman back to him, 20:15&and "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" said, look, my land is to your face, functional in your eyes, settle, 20:16&and to "Sarah [Noblewoman]" he said, look, I gave a thousand silver to your brother look, he is to you a raiment of the eyes to all who are with you and with all and being convicted, 20:17&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" pleaded to the "Elohiym [Powers]" and "Elohiym [Powers]" healed "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" and his woman and his bondwomen and they brought forth, 20:18&given that "YHWH [He exists]" stopped round about all the bowels to the house of "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" because of "Sarah [Noblewoman]" the woman of "Avraham [Father lifted]",

AHRC Excerpt - Foods and their preparation for eating

WHAT KINDS OF FOOD did the ancient Jews eat? "The ordinary food of the average Hebrew of Bible times was bread, olives, oil, buttermilk cheese from their flocks; fruits and vegetables from the orchards and gardens; and meat on rare occasions." Only few more varieties would have to be added to make this a complete list of foods eaten in those days.

The use of raw grain and parched grain

The eating of raw grain is a modern custom in Palestine that dates back to very ancient days. See also Eating Grain In The Field.The Arabs today often pluck the ears of grain and rubbing them in their hands, eat them. The Mosaic Law said: "Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears , until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God" (Lev. 23:14; cf. Deut. 23:25; 2Kings 4:42). The disciples of Jesus ate raw grain in the fields. "His disciples plucked the ears of corn and did eat, rubbing them in their hands" Luke 6:1; cf. Matt. 12:1, Mark 2:23)

So it can be readily seen that this custom of eating raw grain has prevailed for thousands of years.

Another food common in the Orient today and in use in Bible times is parched grain. This is prepared from the grains of wheat that are not fully ripe. They are roasted in a pan or on an iron plate. Such grain is eaten either with or without bread. Jesse sent some of it to his sons in the army by the hand of David (1Sam. 17:17). Abigail included some of it in her present to David (1Sam. 25:18). And David received some of it from friends at the time he had fled from Absalom (2Sam. 17:28). These Scriptures show that parched grain has been in use for centuries.

Bread the principal food

In the Orient it has been estimated that three-fourths of the people live entirely upon either bread or upon that which is made from wheat or barley flour. It is unquestionably the principal food of the East.

In the Bible such an expression as "eating bread" is often used when Occidentals would say: "eating a meal." When the Bible says, "The Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews" (Gen. 43:31, 32), it means that they could not eat a meal with them (Gen. 37:25; Exod. 2:20; 1Sam. 28:22-25).

AHRC Updates

New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.

Is the name of God pronounced Yehovah? (Video) - 2/21/2018

The First and Second Names of God (Guest Article) - 2/15/2018

The Suzerain/Vassal Covenants (Guest Article) - 2/15/2018

Comments & Editorial

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