Ancient Hebrew Research Center
Biblical Hebrew eMagazine
July, 2018
Issue #086
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In This Issue

Biblical Hebrew Word - Daughter-in-law
Modern Hebrew Word - Dictionary
Featured AHRC Product - Intro to AH
Name Study - Adonai
Verse Study - Genesis 3:19
Q & A - Yeshu
In the News - Wool Fragments
MT Excerpt - Genesis 21:11-19
AHRC Excerpt - Alphabet
AHRC Updates
Comments & Editorial

Biblical Hebrew Word - Daughter-in-law

Daughter-in-law The Hebrew verb כלל (K.L.L, Strong’s #3634) means “to be complete.” This verb is derived from the parent root כל (kol, Strong’s #3605), which means “all,” but in the sense of “everything that is needed to be complete.”

Related to these roots is the word כלה (kalah, Strong’s #3618), which is the Hebrew word for “daughter-in-law,” but can also mean “bride,” the woman who becomes the “daughter-in-law” of her husband’s parents. Because this word is related to other words meaning “complete,” we can assume that the Ancient Hebrews perspective of a “bride” is that she becomes “complete” upon marriage.

Modern Hebrew Word - Dictionry

Ehud Yehudah's Dictionary The Modern Hebrew word for “dictionary” is the word מילון (mi’lon). This word is derived from the Biblical Hebrew noun מלה (mi’lah, Strong’s #) meaning “a word.” An excellent Modern Hebrew dictionary is Ehud Yehudah’s Pocket Hebrew-English / English – Hebrew Dictionary. If you are planning a trip to Israel, this dictionary will be invaluable.

Ehud Yehudah's Dictionary

Featured AHRC Product - Introduction to Ancient Hebrew

This video examines various aspects of the Ancient Hebrew language including; the relationship between the Hebrew words of the Bible and the Ancient Hebrew culture; the differences between Greek and Hebrew concepts such as time and space; the meaning of the letters in the ancient pictographic Hebrew script; and the root system of the Ancient Hebrew language.

Name Study - Adonai

And he said, Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? (KJV, Genesis 15:8)
And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. (KJV, Genesis 2:15)

Notice that both of the verses above include the phrase “lord god.” In 15:8 this phrase is written as “Lord GOD,” but in 2:15 it is written as “LORD God.” In 15:8 the Hebrew for this phrase is as; אדני יהוה (Adonai Yahweh), but in 2:15 it is written as; יהוה אלהים (Yahweh Elohiym).

The name Yahweh (whose pronunciation is debated) is the name of the God of the Bible. Throughout the Old Testament, the KJV, and most other translations translate the Hebrew name Yahweh as “LORD,” in all upper case, and this is the case in 2:15.

The word Elohiym is the Hebrew word for “God.” But in 15:8 the word “god” is written in all uppercase because it is the KJV’s translation of the name Yahweh. Because the word Adonai means “lord,” which I will come back to, they couldn’t translate this as “Lord LORD,” so they chose to use the word “god” for Yahweh and write it in all upper case letters (just another case of a translation disregarding the actual Hebrew text).

This brings us to the word Adonai. The noun that this word is derived from is the word אדן (adon) and means “lord.” If you want to say “my lord,” this word would be written as אדני (adoniy). If you want to say “lords,” then it is אדנים (adoniym). If you want to say “my lords,” then it is אדני (adonai), which is the very word in Genesis 2:15.

The Hebrew word אדוני (adonai), which is translated as “LORD,” literally means “my lords.” It should be noted that many of the names (or titles) of Yahweh are in the plural including; Adonai (my lords), Elohiym (powerful ones) and Shaddai (my breasts). Therefore, these words should not be translated, as so many translations do, but instead transliterated – Adonai, Elohiym and Shaddai.

Verse Study - Genesis 3:19

בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. (ASV)

בְּזֵעַת (b’zey’at) The base word is the word זעה (z’ah) and means “sweat.” The prefix ב (b) means “in” or “with” – with sweat. When the letter ה (h), at the end of the word, is changed to a ת (t), the word is in the construct state – with the sweat of.

אַפֶּיךָ (a’phey’kha) The base word is the noun אף (aph) meaning “nose.” This is written in the plural, אפים (aphiym), meaning “nostrils.” But because of the added suffix, the final mem (ם) is dropped. The suffix ך (kha) means “your” (masculine singular) – your nostrils.

תֹּאכַל (to’khal) The base word is the verb אכל (A.K.L) meaning "to eat." It is prefixed with the letter ת (t), which identifies the tense of the verb as imperfect–will eat, and the subject of the verb as 2nd person, masculine, singular–you will eat.

לֶחֶם (le’hhem) This noun means “bread,” but is euphemistically used for “food.”

עַד (ad) This is a preposition meaning “until.”

שׁוּבְךָ (shuv’kha) The base word is the verb שוב (Sh.W.B) meaning “return.” The suffix ך (kha) means “your” (masculine singular) – your returning.

אֶל (el) This word is a preposition meaning "to" or "toward."

הָאֲדָמָה (ha’a’da’mah) This is the word אדמה (adamah) meaning ground, with the prefix ה (ha) meaning "the" – the ground.

כִּי (kiy) This conjunction means “for.”

מִמֶּנָּה (mi’me’nah) The base word is the preposition ממן (mimen) meaning “from.” The suffix ה (ah) means “her” (the ground, which is a feminine word) – from her.

לֻקָּחְתָּ (lu’qahh’ta) The base word is the verb לקח (L.Q.Hh) meaning “to take” and is written in the past participle form – was taken. The suffix ת (ta) identifies the subject of the verb as second person, masculine, singular – you were taken.

כִּי (kiy) This word means "for" or "because" and is used to explain what came previously.

עָפָר (a’phar) This word means "dust" or "powder."

אַתָּה (a’tah) This Hebrew word means "you" (masculine,singular).

וְאֶל (v’el) The base word is אל (el) meaning "to" or "toward" with the prefix ו (ve) meaning "and."

עָפָר (a’phar) This word means "dust" or "powder."

תָּשׁוּב (ta’shuv) The base word is the verb שוב (Sh.W.B) meaning “return.” The prefix ת (ta) identifies the subject of the verb as second person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect – you will return.

The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.

With the sweat of your nostrils you will eat bread until you return to the ground, from her you were taken, for dust are you and to dust you will return.

Q & A - Yeshu

Q: Why is the name of Jesus written a יש״ו (yeshu) in some books and documents?

A: The name Jesus is represented by יש״ו (pronounced yeshu) in some non-Biblical texts, but this isn't actually his name, it is an acronym. Identified as such by the ״ before the last letter, that is used by Jews for Jesus’ name. . This acronym stands for ימח שמו וזכרו (y’mahh sh’mo v’zichro) and means “may his name and memory be obliterated.”

In the News - Wool Fragments

Conspicuous Consumption
By Danciel Weiss

Vividly colored red and blue fragments of wool discovered at a copper mining site in southern Israel’s Timna Valley are offering new insights into the social standing of metalworkers who lived in the remote area. The fragments, which have been radiocarbon dated to 3,000 years ago, are the earliest known examples of textiles treated with plant-based dyes in the Levant. But the plants used to make the dyes—the madder plant for red and most likely the woad plant for blue—could not have been grown in the arid Timna Valley. Nor was there enough water available locally to raise the livestock necessary to provide wool or to dye the fabric. The textiles must, therefore, have been produced elsewhere. According to Naama Sukinek of the Israel Antiquities Authority, the discovery suggests that at least some of the metalworkers at Timna had the resources to purchase this imported cloth. Says Sukinek, “Our finding indicates that the society in Timna included an upper class that had access to expensive and prestigious textiles.”

MT Excerpt - Genesis 21:11-19

21:11&and the word was very dysfunctional in the eyes of "Avraham [Father lifted]" concerning his son, 21:12&and "Elohiym [Powers]" said to "Avraham [Father lifted]", it is not dysfunctional in your eyes upon the young man and upon your bondwoman, all which "Sarah [Noblewoman]" says to you, hear in her voice given that in "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]", seed will be called out to you, 21:13&and also I will set in place the son of the bondwoman for a nation given that he is your seed, 21:14&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" departed early in the morning and he took bread and a skin bag of water and he gave to "Hagar [Stranger]" setting the boy in place upon her shoulder and he sent her and she walked and she wandered in the wilderness of "B'er-Sheva [Well of oath], 21:15&and they finished the water from the skin bag and she threw out the boy under one of the shrubs, 21:16&and she walked and she settled herself opposite a far, like the hurling of a bow, given that she said I will not see in the death of the boy and she settled opposite and she lifted up her voice and she wept, 21:17&and "Elohiym [Powers]" heard the voice of the young man and the messenger of "Elohiym [Powers]" called out to "Hagar [Stranger]" from the sky and he said to her, what is to you "Hagar [Stranger]", you will not fear given that "Elohiym [Powers]" heard the voice of the young man whereas he is there, 21:18&rise, lift up the young man and make your hand seize with him given that I will set him in place for a magnificent nation, 21:19&and "Elohiym [Powers]" opened up her eyes and she saw a well of water and she walked and she filled the skin bag of water and she made the young man drink,

AHRC Excerpt - Alphabet

The Ancient Hebrew language was written with 22 letters, each written with a picture, such as an ox, tent, foot or a door. These pictographic letters are more than just sound identifiers, but also have a meaning. The best way to demonstrate the benefit of understanding the meanings of each pictograph is by looking at some Hebrew prefixes. The Hebrew language commonly uses five Hebrew letters for prefixes to provide additional information. Let us look at how these prefixes work and how the pictographs of the prefixes aid in their definitions. In each example below we will use the Hebrew word erets (Strong's #776), meaning land, and add the prefix before it.

The name of this letter is Beyt and has a "b" sound. This letter is a picture of a nomadic tent such as would have been used by the ancient Hebrews and represents what is inside the tent - the family. The meaning of this letter can be tent or within. When this letter is placed in front of the word erets the word be'erets is formed and means "within a land."

The Waw has a "w" sound (called the vav in modern Hebrew with a "v" sound) and is a picture of a peg or nail which is used to secure or add things together. This letter is used to mean "and" in the sense of adding. When this letter is prefixed to the word erets the word we'erets is formed meaning "and a land."

The Hey has a "h" sound and is a picture of a man with his arms raised up, shouting and pointing at a great site as if to say "behold, look at that". This letter is used to mean "the" in the sense of pointing to something of importance. When this letter is prefixed to the word erets the word ha'erets is formed meaning "the land."

The Lamed has a "l" sound and is a picture of a sheperd staff which was used to direct the sheep toward a particular direction, such as that of water or pasture. This letter is used to mean "toward" and when prefixed to the word erets the word le'erets is formed meaning "toward a land."

The Mem has a "m" sound and is a picture of a water. This letter can also mean the flowing water of man and animals, the blood. Blood is passed from one generation to another and can therefore mean "from." When this letter is prefixed to the word erets the word me'erets is formed meaning "from a land."

AHRC Updates

New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.

AHRC Syllabus - 7/8/2018

What is the Lashawan Qadash? (Video) - 7/4/2018

The Ancient Hebrew Alphabet (New DVD/Video) - 6/30/2018

Natives, Strangers, Immigrants and Foreigners - 6/27/2018

Biblical Hebrew Picture Dictionary (New eBook) - 5/15/2018

The Genealogy of Genesis 5 (Video) - 4/27/2018

Comments & Editorial

Do you have a comment or personal insight into the articles in this issue of the E-Zine or found any errors needing correction? If so, let us know.

From Israel Cohen:

Jackel I think תַנִין (tannin, crocodile) needs to be compared with תַן (tan, jackal). Both are being named for their most prominent feature: their teeth. When the letter shin (Editor’s Note: Hebrew words that are spelled with the letter shin or often spelled in Aramaic with a tav) lost its dental D/T-sound, some words were respelled with tav to retain the earlier sound. The jackal only has 2 very prominent teeth: The crocodile has many: Hence the Aramaic-style plural (Editor’s Note: The Hebrew plural suffix is iym while the Aramaic plural is iyn, such as we see in the word taniyn).

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