Ancient Hebrew Research Center
Biblical Hebrew eMagazine
April, 2018
Issue #085
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In This Issue

Biblical Hebrew Word - Roads, Streets and Paths
Modern Hebrew Word - Crocodile
Featured AHRC Product - The Torah
Name Study - Moses
Verse Study - Genesis 3:18
Q & A - The Letter E
In the News - Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit
MT Excerpt - Genesis 21:1-10
AHRC Excerpt - Hieroglyphic Hyksos Hoax
AHRC Updates
Comments & Editorial

Biblical Hebrew Word - Roads, Streets and Paths

A common question is, “Is it really helpful to look at the Hebrew words behind a translation?” While many will say, “No, the English is sufficient,” I have found that it is those who have no comprehension of Hebrew that say this. But those who know Hebrew, or have studied the Hebrew words of the Bible, understand that no translation can really convey the meaning of Hebrew words accurately. Case in point, in Biblical Hebrew there are multiple words for an object or animal depending on its function. By learning the meanings of these different words, deeper understanding of the text is achieved. As an example there are three Hebrew words for the moon.

  1. ירח (y’rey’ahh, Strong’s #3391 & #3394) is used in reference to its path in the sky as it comes from an unused root meaning “to follow a prescribed path.”
  2. חודש (hhodesh, Strong’s #2320) is used in reference to a “new moon” as it comes from the root word חדש (Hh. D.Sh, Strong’s #2318), which means “to be new” or “to be renewed.”
  3. לבנה (lavanah, Strong’s #3842) is used in reference to its “whiteness” as it is derived the root לבן (L.B.N, Strong’s #3835) meaning “to be white.”

In the case of the different Hebrew words for a path, road or street, the Biblical Hebrew language has many words; each with its own nuance of meaning that will help in interpreting the text.

  1. רחוב (rahhov, Strong’s #7339) is derived from the root רחב (R.Hh.B, Strong’s #7337), which means “to be wide,” so this word is used for a “wide” road, probably used for carts and wagons.
  2. דרך (derekh, Strong’s #1870) is derived from the root דרך (D.R.K, Strong’s #1869) meaning “to take footsteps,” so this word is used for “footpath,” or a trail.
  3. שביל (shaviyl, Strong’s #7635) appears to be derived from the root שבל (Sh.B.L, Strong’s #7666, but written as שבר), which means “to exchange,” as in trading and this word for a road is probably used for a “trade route.”
  4. נתיב (natiyv, Strong’s #5410) is derived from the root נתב (Ν.Τ.Β, which is not found in the Hebrew Bible) meaning “to tramp” and this word for a road is probably used in reference to a well-trodden path.
  5. מסילה (mesiylah, Strong’s #4546) is derived from the root סלל (S.L.L, Strong's #5549) meaning "to build up" or "to mound up" and this word for a road is probably used for a road that has been built up higher than the surrounding landscape, a highway.
  6. אורח (orahh, Strong's #734) is used in reference to a path that is frequently taken and is from an unused root meaning “to follow a prescribed path,” the same root word used for ירח (y’rey’ahh, Strong’s #3391 & #3394) meaning the moon.
  7. משעול (mishol, Strong's #4934) is a narrow path or a path in a valley.

Modern Hebrew Word - Crocodile

The Modern Hebrew word for a crocodile is תנין (taniyn, Strong’s #8577). This word is also a Biblical Hebrew word and appears twenty-eight times in the Hebrew Bible, including the following verses.

When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent (taniyn). (KJV, Exodus 7:9)

And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent (taniyn). (KJV, Exodus 7:10)

Is it possible that Moses’ staff turned into a crocodile instead of a serpent? Yes, I believe so. The usual Hebrew word for a serpent is נחש (nahhash, Strong’s #5175) and this is the word used in these two verses.

And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent (nahhash); and Moses fled from before it. (KJV, Exodus 4:3)

Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent (nahhash) shalt thou take in thine hand. (KJV, Exodus 7:15)

According to these verses, Moses’ staff turned into a taniyn (7:9,10), but it is also called a nahhash (4:3, 7:15). I am of the opinion that the Hebrew word nahhash means “reptile,” which could be a serpent or a crocodile. This leaves us with the word taniyn. In Genesis 1:21 the taniyn, translated as “whale” in the KJV, appears to live in the water, but in Psalm 91:13 the taniyn, translated as “dragon” in the KJV, appears to live on the land.

While there are some serpents that do swim in the water, they are predominately a land animal. The crocodile however, is at home in the water and the land.

Featured AHRC Product - The Torah: A Mechanical Translation

A new and unique method of translation that brings you a literal and faithful word-for-word translation of the Hebrew text through the English language.

Whether you are new to the Bible or have a good command of the Hebrew language, my hope is that this translation and its accompanying resources (concordance, lexicon and commentary) will be a great value to you in your Biblical Studies.

After fifteen years of working on this translation I am excited to say that it is almost complete. I say "almost" because I still have a lot of editing to do to the document and if you are so inclined, you can help me.

My goal is to have all of the editing of this document complete by the end of 2018, at which time it will be published in book form. Thank you all for your interest and support.

Name Study - Moses

The name Moses is written in the Hebrew Bible as משה (mosheh, Strong's #4872). This name is derived from the Hebrew verb משה (M.Sh.H, Strong's #4871) meaning "to draw out." Mosheh was named such, because the Pharaoh’s daughter "drew him out of the water" (Exodus 2:10).

How did the name Mosheh become Moses? Most names in English Bibles are derived from the Greek Septuagint (a 2,000 year old Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), not the Hebrew Bible itself and in the Greek Septuagint this name is written as Μωυσῆς (Moses) as Greek has no letter for “sh” or “h” and the “s” is added at the end, as it does with many male names.

Verse Study - Genesis 3:18

וְקֹוץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃
thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; (ASV)

וְקֹוץ (v’qots) This is the word קוץ (qots) meaning “thorns” with the prefix ו (v) meaning “and” – and thorns.

וְדַרְדַּר (v’dar’dar) This is the word דרדר (dar’dar) meaning “brambles” with the prefix ו (v) meaning “and” – and brambles.

תַּצְמִיחַ (tats’miy’ahh) This is the verb צמח (Ts.M.Hh) meaning “to sprout.” The prefix ת (ta) identifies the subject of the verb as third person, feminine, singular and the tense of the verb as imperfect – she will sprout. Note that the “she” is referring to the “ground,” a feminine noun, from verse 17. The letter י (iy) is added to the verb to identify it as a hiphil (causative) verb – she will cause to sprout.

לָךְ (lakh) This is the prefix ל (la) meaning “to” or “for” and the suffix ך (kh) meaning you – for you.

וְאָכַלְתָּ (v’a’khal’ta) This is the verb אכל (A.K.L) meaning “to eat.” The suffix ת (ta) identifies the subject of the verb as second person, masculine, singular and the tense of the verb as perfect – you ate. The prefix ו (v) means “and,” but also reverses the tense from perfect to imperfect – you will eat.

אֶת (et) This word identifies the definite object of the previous verb, which is the words that follow.

עֵשֶׂב (ey’sev) This word means green plants, vegetation.

הַשָּׂדֶה (ha’sa’deh) This is the noun שדה (sadeh) meaning “field” with the prefix ה (ha) meaning “the” – the field. This word and the preceding word are a construct, so they will be translated as “the vegetation of the field.”

The following is a literal rendering of this verse from its Hebraic meaning.

And thorns and brambles she will cause to sprout for you and you will eat the vegetation of the field.

Q & A - The Letter E

Q: Being there is no "E" in the Hebrew alphabet, why are the words El and Elohiym written with an "E?"

A: Four of the Hebrew letters in the Hebrew alphabet are called Matres Lectionis. They are the aleph, hey, vav and yud. These letters were used as a consonant and a vowel. The Aleph had an "a" or "e" sound. The Hey an "h" or "e" sound. The vav a "w" (or as some believe, a "v"), "o" or "u" sound. The yud had a "y" or "ee" sound. Because of all the various ways these letters can be pronounced it has caused some confusion to the pronunciation of some words.

In regards to what I have stated above, all of these pronunciations have been gleaned from how the Hebrew was transliterated into the Greek Septuagint 2,000 years ago, and how the Hebrews pronounced words based on the Masoretic Hebrew text of the Bible of 1,000 years ago.

Coming back to our original question, it is interesting to note that in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet the Hebrew letter hey was a backwards "E" and is the origin of our letter "E."

In the News - Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit

“Dead Sea Scrolls” exhibit in Denver illuminates the mysterious origins of major world religions (from the Denver Post)

Final U.S. stop of exhibit opens March 16 with a host of political implications, including controversy over who owns the 2,000-year-old documents

MT Excerpt - Genesis 21:1-10

21:1&and "YHWH [He exists]" had visited "Sarah [Noblewoman]" just as he said and "YHWH [He exists]" did to "Sarah [Noblewoman]" just as he spoke, 21:2&and "Sarah [Noblewoman]" conceived and she brought forth for "Avraham [Father lifted]" a son to his extreme old age to the appointed time which "Elohiym [Powers]" spoke to him, 21:3&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" called out the title of his son, being brought forth for him which "Sarah [Noblewoman]" brought forth for him, "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]", 21:4&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" circumcised "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]" his son, a son of eight days just as "Elohiym [Powers]" directed him, 21:5&and "Avraham [Father lifted]" was a son of a hundred years with "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]" his son, being brought forth for him, 21:6&and "Sarah [Noblewoman]" said, "Elohiym [Powers]" did laughter to me, all the ones hearing will laugh for me, 21:7&and she said, who talked to "Avraham [Father lifted]", "Sarah [Noblewoman]" made sons suckle given that I brought forth a son to his extreme old age, 21:8&and the boy will magnify and he will be yielded and "Avraham [Father lifted]" will do a magnificent feast in the day "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]" is being yielded, 21:9&and "Sarah [Noblewoman]" saw the son of "Hagar [Stranger]", the one of "Mitsrayim [Troubles]" which brought forth for "Avraham [Father lifted]", much mocking, 21:10&and she said to "Avraham [Father lifted]", cast out this bondwoman and her son given that the son of this bondwoman will not inherit with my son "Yits'hhaq [He laughs]",

AHRC Excerpt - Hieroglyphic Hyksos Hoax

A rebuttal to Lew White's article "Hieroglyphic Hyksos Hoax"
By Jeff A. Benner

Lew White states on his Fossilized Customs website;

A gentleman (I will not name) came out with a book a few years ago [The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Of The Bible] showing charts with alphabets arranged with letters mixing together the palaeo-Hebrew letters with about 7 or 8 of these foreign hieroglyphic / pictographic letters, and now we see these on the Internet displaying the Name of Yahuah in this script.

Lew White is of course referring to me and my lexicon.

Lew continues a few paragraphs later;

Yahuah wrote His Name in the familiar characters we know as palaeo-Hebrew, as we can see on the Great "Isaiah" (YashaYahu) Scroll at the Hekal Sefer (Shrine of the Book) in Yerushalayim. It's real evidence from the past, and not a hoax. The other doesn't exist in the real world, only in charts, just like the fake charts of the "geological column".

Below is an example from the Great Isaiah Scroll, which Lew mentions where we see the name of God, written in the Paleo-Hebrew. I would like to point out that God did not write his name here, as he stated in the paragraph above, but is a scribes "copy" of Isaiah's original scroll. How the name was written in the original scroll, we can only speculate upon.

The name in the Isaiah Scroll

Lew points out that nowhere in the archeological record do we find the name Yahweh written in the ancient pictographic script, which Lew is calling Egyptian and Hyksos Hieroglyphics. His perspective is that the ancient pictographic script was not the origin of the Paleo-Hebrew script, as I and others teach, but that the ancient pictographic script was developed out of the Paleo-Hebrew by Egyptians.

Before I go any further, I would like to mention that I have a lot of respect for Lew's teachings. In fact I was introduced to his teachings over 20 years ago, even before I learned Hebrew, and his work caused me to rethink many of my beliefs. This article is in no way meant to discredit Lew, but to simply provide my perspectives on the issues that he brings up in his article.

Here is the letter aleph from my Hebrew Alphabet Chart.

Mr. Benner's Alphabet Chart

And here is the letter aleph from Lew White's Hebrew Alphabet Chart.

Lew White's Alphabet Chart

Note that the two charts are practically identical. Both identify the Paleo-Hebrew letter (which Lew indicates as "Hebrew" and I indicate as "Middle Hebrew") as a picture of an ox and is the origin of the Greek letter Alpha (A). The only major difference is that I show the picture of an ox head as the origin of the Paleo-Hebrew letter aleph, which Lew believes is an Egyptian letter taken from the Paleo-Hebrew.

Lew mentions that the only examples of this pictographic script are from Serabit El-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula and for the most part he is correct. Below is one such inscription that was found at the entrance of a mine. Note the image of an ox head (the letter aleph) in the upper right corner of the inscription.

Mine Entrance inscription

Prior to the discovery of these ancient pictographic letters, the oldest known Semitic script was the Paleo-Hebrew script (also called Phoenician as the two are identical). But it was hypothesized that these Paleo-Hebrew letters evolved out of an older pictographic alphabet. In 1886 A Compendius and Complete Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament wrote concerning the letter aleph that "its oldest figure probably pictured a bovine head."

Then, in 1905, Flinders Petrie, a pioneer in modern archeology, discovered the inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim. A few years later, Dr. Alan H. Gardiner, who studied these inscriptions and found that they were written with twenty-two characters, concluded that the inscriptions were written in a Semitic alphabet and was the origin of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, just as A Compendius and Complete Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament hypothesized years earlier. More recently, archaeologist and epigrapher Douglas Petrovich concluded after years of research that these pictographs are Hebrew and published his findings in his book The World's Oldest Alphabet.

AHRC Updates

New web content, articles, books, videos and DVDs produced by AHRC as well as any new events.

What is Lebanon? (Guest Article) - 4/8/2018

Comments & Editorial

Do you have a comment or personal insight into the articles in this issue of the E-Zine or found any errors needing correction? If so, let us know.

Re: Hebrew Word for Resurrection

I didn't get too far before becoming sidetracked by another "coincidence." I'm not sure I would have looked this up but for having been introduced to the idea of Edenics. It pertains to what you wrote here: "In the Peshitta, a 5th Century Aramaic New Testament, the word used for "resurrection" in the verse above is the word קימתא (q'yam'ta). This Aramaic word translates into Hebrew as תקומה (tequmah, Strong's #8617)."

I was reminded of the Indian chief Tecumseh and wondered about the meaning of his name. A Google search brought up the Wikipedia entry, which says his name means Shooting Star" or "Panther Across the Sky" or "Blazing Comet." But it also brought up this entry from a site on the meaning of names:

TECUMSEH as a boys' name is of Algonquian Wakashian origin, and the meaning of Tecumseh is "goes through one place to another."

Although it says it refers to a shooting star, with or without that reference, it seems awfully interesting to me that, in Hebrew the word for TEQUMAH means "resurrection," and in Algonquian, the word TECUMSEH means "goes through one place to another." More food for thought!

Thanks for the e-zine.

Paula Senft

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