Biblical Hebrew Picture Dictionary
By Jeff A. Benner

Fear (ירא yarey, Strong's #3372): The concrete Hebraic meaning of this verb is "to flow." It is related to the word yorehh [str:3138] meaning "first rain" and ye'or [str:2975] meaning "stream." When you are seriously afraid of something, you can feel your insides "flowing." This is the meaning of this word but is usually translated simply as "fear."

Shadow of Death (צלמות tsalmavet, Strong's #6757): The Hebrew language rarely includes compound words (two words put together to form one word). One of those few compound words in Hebrew is tsalmavet which is the word tsal [str:6738] meaning "shadow" and mavet [str:4194] meaning "death." The "shadow of death" is despair, danger or tragedy which is understood as a deep impenetrable darkness.

Valley (גיא gai, Strong's #1516): The parent root of this word is gey [Str:1341], a word meaning "pride" in the sense of lifting oneself up to a high position. The word gai is a valley, a place surrounded by "high" walls. While a valley can be a place of beauty, it can also be a place of darkness and defenselessness.

Title (שם shem, Strong's #8034): In our modern western culture, a "name" is a series of letters put together to form an abstract identifier of a person. However, in English, a "name" is more of what we would call a "title," a word with meaning. An example is the "name" Adam [str:120] which is related to the Hebrew word adamah [str:127] meaning "ground." This link between Adam and ground can be seen in Genesis 2:7 - And YHWH formed the Adam of dust from the ground.

Correctness (צדק tsedeq, Strong's #6664): While this word is usually translated as "righteousness," the more concrete Hebraic meaning is "correctness," in the sense of walking in the "correct" path.

Guide (נחה nahhah, Strong's #5148): This verb is closely related to other roots which mean rest, quiet and comfort. The context of the use of this word in the Bible often implies a guiding or leading of another to a place of rest.

Trench (מעגל magal, Strong's #4570): When wagons are repeatedly driven down a path, the wheels cut grooves, or trenches, in the path. These grooves force wagons to follow this very same path time after time. For this reason, this word means a path that is well defined and easy to follow.

Turn back (שוב shuv, Strong's #7725): To return to a previous state or place. The first use of this word is found in Genesis 3:19 where man (adam), who is taken from the ground (adamah) will return (shuv) to the ground (adamah). This verb is frequently used for repentance where one is going in the wrong direction but then turns around and heads back in the correct direction.

Being (נפש nephesh, Strong's #5315): A person is composed of a unity of different parts, the mind, thought, emotion, personality, body, blood, organs, etc. This word is often translated as "soul," implying an abstract entity contained within a person. However,the more Hebraic meaning of this word is "the whole of the person" and can be understood as a "being," "person" or "entity." This word can be used for man (as seen in Genesis 2:7) and animals (as seen in Genesis 1:21 where it usually translated as "creature"). The root of this word, naphash [str:5314] means "to refresh" in the sense of restoring the whole of the person to its wholeness through rest and nutrition.

Lead ( נהל nahal, Strong's #5095): This Hebrew verb is commonly translated as "to lead" or "to rest" but the more literal meaning of this word is a combination of both of these ideas - "to lead one to a place of rest."

Resting ( מנוחה menuhhah, Strong's #4496): The Hebrew verb nu'ahh [str:4496] means "to rest." The noun form of this word is no'ahh meaning a "resting" and is also the Hebrew form of the name Noah. By adding the "ah" suffix (the feminine ending) and the "m" prefix, a common addition to a root to form another noun, the word menuhhah is formed and means a "resting place" or "place of rest."

Grass ( דשא deshe, Strong's #1877): This word can mean grass, or other green vegetation, but is also used for the color green from the color of grass.

Meadow ( נאה na'ah, Strong's #4999): A place of habitation for many animals, wild and domesticated. This word is related to the idea of beauty in the sense that the meadow or pasture is a delightful place.

Stretch out (רבץ ravats, Strong's #7257): This verb means to lie down in a resting position for resting but can also mean to crouch down in hiding for an ambush.

Decrease (חסר hhaser, Strong's #2637): This verb means to decrease in size, amount, authority, dignity or reputation. The first use of this word is for the decreasing of the waters from the flood in Genesis 8:3 and 5.

Feed (רעה ra'ah, Strong's #7462): The Hebrew verb ra'ah means "to feed" and is usually used for the feeding of a flock or herd. The participle form of a verb is formed by adding an "o" after the first letter and an "e" after the second letter. The participle form of the verb ra'ah is ro'eh and means "one who feeds," a shepherd or herder.

Water (מים mayim, Strong's #4325): This word is first used in Genesis 1:2-And the Wind of Elohiym fluttered over the face of the water. This Hebrew word is used for any water whether it is a jar of water or the water of the oceans. A very interesting Hebrew idiom is "water at the feet" meaning urine (2 Kings 18:27).

Fade ( נבל naveyl, Strong's #5034): This verb means the fading away or degradation of a person, action or object. This can be the withering away of a leaf, the wearing out strength or a non productive effort.

All ( כל kol, Strong's #3605): This word means "all" and is a very common Biblical Hebrew word appearing over 4,000 times in the Hebrew Bible. The verbal root to this word is kul [str:3557] and means to sustain in the sense of providing all that is needed for sustenance. For this reason, the word kol is related to the verb akal [str:398] meaning to eat in the sense of sustenance.

Do ( עשה asah, Strong's #6213): This very common verb simply means "to do" an action and is used in a wide variety of applications. It is frequently used in the context of "making" something.

Prosper ( צלח tsalahh, Strong's #6743): This verb means to succeed by advancing forward in position, possessions or action. This word is often used in the context of a successful mission such as we see with Abraham's servant when going to his families homeland for a wife for his son (Genesis 24:40).

Transplant (שתל shatal, Strong's #8362): This verb is almost always translated as "plant," however, this word has the more specific meaning of transplanting, to remove something from an undesirable location and place it in a desirable location. This can be a plant such as a vine which is transplanted in better soil or person who is placed in a better environment.

Tributary (פלג peleg, Strong's #6388): Peleg comes from the verbal root palag [str:6385] meaning "to split." A tributary is a stream that is "split" off from the main river.

Give (נתן natan, Strong's #5414): This verb is what I call a "generic" verb. While it means to give, it is used in a wide variety of applications. It can mean to set in place, to grant permission, to pay, to speak (give words), to bring forth, to yield and much more.

Season (עת eyt, Strong's #6256): This word more specifically means an appointed time such as a season, a scheduled event, or simply a specific point in time.

Leaf (עלה aleh, Strong's #5929): The verbal root word alah [str:5927] (different spelling of the Arabic word allah) means to go up or to be high. From this root comes the word aleh meaning "high" and is used for the leaves of a tree which are up high in the tree.

YHWH (יהוה YHWH, Strong's #3068): Virtually all translations from Judaism and Christianity use "the LORD" for the Hebrew name of God - YHWH. The original pronunciation of the name can never be determined with complete accuracy but in Hebraic thought it is the meaning of a name that is more important than its pronunciation. The Hebrew YHWH is the verb hawah meaning "to exist" with the prefix y meaning "he." Therefore, the word YHWH means "he exists." YHWH is the one who exists every where every time.

Mutter (הגה hagah, Strong's #1897): This word is frequently associated with the speaking or muttering of the mouth such as in Psalm 37:30 - The mouth of the righteous mutter wisdom. In context, this is not a speaking to another but to one's self.

Daytime (יומם yomam, Strong's #3119): This word is derived from the word yom [str:3117] meaning "day" which can refer to a twenty-four hour period or daytime. The word yomam always refers to the daylight hours, the time between sunup and sundown.

Night (לילה laylah, Strong's #3915): Just as the English word "night" means the dark hours of the day so does the Hebrew word laylah. This word is related to other words meaning "to roll back" because the sun is rolling back for its return to its rise in the east.

Desire (חפץ hhephets, Strong's #2656): This noun can refer to the desire of an object such as gold or silver or an action that one seeks such as salvation from a deliverer.

Teachings (תורה torah, Strong's #8451): One of the most misunderstood words in the Hebrew Bible is the Hebrew word torah. This word is usually translated as "law" which by definition is a set of rules and regulations established by a government and is enforced with the threat of fines or imprisonment. However, the word torah literally means "teachings," a set of instructions given by a teacher or parent in order to foster maturity and is enforced with discipline and encouragement.

Settle (ישב yashav, Strong's #3427): Yashav can means to settle down in a dwelling for the night or for long periods of time. This verb can also mean to simply sit down.

Mimic (לוץ luts, Strong's #3887): This verb means to repeat or imitate another person's speech as an ambassador, interpretor or mocker.

Settling (מושב moshav, Strong's #4186): The noun moshav comes from the root yashav [str:3427] meaning "to settle." A common formation of a noun from a root is to add the letter "M" to the front of the root. This "M" usually adds the meaning "place" to the root so, moshav means "settling place" or "dwelling."

Stand (עמד amad, Strong's #5975): This verb means "to stand" but can be used in a wide variety of applications such as, to be erect or upright, to remain or maintain in the sense of standing in one place or to establish or appoint in the sense of being stood in a position. The noun form, amud [str:5982], is a pillar which stands firm and tall. Both the verb and noun form can be found in Exodus 14:19-and the pillar (amud) of the cloud went from before their face, and stood (amad) behind them.

Sinner (חטא hhata, Strong's #2400): When one shoots at a target and misses it, we would say that he "missed the mark," just as we see in Judges 20:16-every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss.The verb translated as "miss" in this verse is hhata [str:2398]. This verb is also frequently translated as "sin." God provides man with the target, his teachings, and when man does not hit that target he "misses the mark." The word hhata, the noun form of the verb, means a "sinner," or "one who misses the mark."

Path (דרך Derekh, Strong's #1870): A path is a well marked road or trail that may be followed to lead one to a specific location. Throughout the Hebrew Bible the word path is used for man's journey through life. The path that is followed may be one that has been carved out by other men or by God.

Wicked (רשע rasha, Strong's #7563): In the English language a wicked person is one who performs evil. However, in the Hebrew language the noun rasha has a very different meaning. By investigating the verbal root of this word we can gain a clearer picture of its meaning. The root of this word is the verb rasha [str:7561] and its original concrete meaning can be found in Psalm 18:21 - For I have guarded the paths of Yahweh, and have not departed from my Elohiym. (Most translations have "wickedly departed" but the word "wickedly" is added to the text and not part of the Hebrew). The verb rasha means "to depart from the path," either by walking off the path on purpose or by becoming lost from the path. The noun rasha is "one who has walked off the path."

Counsel (עצה eytsah, Strong's #6098): The word eytsah, meaning counsel, is the feminine form of the masculine word eyts [str:6086] meaning a tree. Counsel is the giving of advice, encouragement or guidance. Within the family or the community this would be an elder, one filled with years of wisdom and experience. In the Hebrew mind this elder, or counselor, and his counsel is seen as the support to the community in the same way that the trunk of a tree supports the branches of the tree.

Not (לא lo, Strong's #3808): The word lo means "no" or "not" but is most commonly used to negate a verb. For instance, the verb asah [str:6213] is translated as "he did" but lo asah would be translated as "he did not."

Which (אשר asher, Strong's #834): The Hebrew word asher can be translated as the relative participle "which" or "who(m)." It is derived from the parent root shar which is a "cord." A cord is used for attaching one thing to another. The word asher is related to this idea of attaching to points as it is used to attach one part of a sentence to another such as we see in Genesis 2:8 – "the Adam whom he formed.

Man (איש iysh, Strong's #376): A Hebrew word is closely related to its root as well as other words derived from that root. So, by looking at the root of the word iysh we can gain a clearer picture of the meaning of this word. The root of this word is anash [str:605] (the letter n (nun) is frequently dropped from a root) and its meaning can be found in Jeremiah 15:18 - Why is my pain unceasing, my wound incurable, refusing to be healed? Anash means "to be incurable" like a would that refuses to heal. This connection between incurableness and man is probably derived from man's mortality. I have heard it said before "We are born terminally ill" since death is inevitable for all of us.

Flute (חליל hhaliyl, Strong's #2485): The Hebrew word hhaliyl is an ancient type of flute and comes from the root hhalal [str:2490] meaning "to pierce" through the idea of a "pipe" with holes pierced through it.

Thanksgiving (תודה todah, Strong's #8426): The word todah comes from the verbal root yadah [str:3034] meaning "to throw out the hands." This root is in turn derived from the parent root yad [str:3027] meaning "hand." This word is synonymous with the verbal root halal [str:1984] usually translated as "praise" as can be seen in the following verse where these two words are used in parallel, I will praise the name of God with a song, And will magnify him with thanksgiving (Psalm 69:30).

Light (אור or, Strong's #216): Probably the most quoted passage in the Bible is Let there be Light. In Hebraic thought, light is associated with order (notice the Hebrew word or in the English word order). Genesis 1:3 can be interpreted as "Let there be order" which poetically corresponds with verse 2 which states that the creation was in "chaos."

Eysh'dat (אשדת eysh'dat, Strong's #799): One of the most mysterious words in the Hebrew is the word eysh'dat which only occurs once in the Bible – Deuteronomy 33:2 which states From [Yahweh's] right hand eysh'dat to them. It has been interpreted by most that this is a combination of two words eysh [str:784] meaning "fire" and dat [str:1881] meaning "edict," but because the word dat is only used in later Hebrew and eysh'dat is written as one word, this interpretation seems unlikely and the original meaning of this word is completely unknown.

Brier (שמיר shamiyr, Strong's #8068): This word is frequently used in the book of Isaiah in the phrase shamiyr v'shayit (briers and thorns). This word comes from the root shamar [str:8104] which is often translated as "keep" but more literally means to guard or preserve. When a shepherd was out at night with the flock he would construct a corral of briers (shamiyr) to "preserve" the flock from predators.

Lace (שרוך serok, Strong's #8288): A serok is a cord or string that is used to attach the sandal to the foot by twisting it around the foot, ankle and lower leg. This word comes from the verbal root sarak [str:8308] meaning to twist and is only used twice in the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah 5:27 and in Genesis 14:23 where Abraham refuses to owe even a sandal lace to another, a far cry from our credit driven society of today.

Rejoice (גיל giyl, Strong's #1523): A very common song from the book of Psalms is This is the day which the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it (118:24). Rejoice is an abstract word, a Greek form of thought. The Hebrew word giyl, translated as rejoice in the above verse, is related to other Hebrew words like galgal [str:1534] meaning a wheel, galal [str:1556] meaning to roll and galiyl [str:1550] meaning a turning. Each of these words are related to "going around in a circle." From an Hebraic concrete perspective rejoicing, giyl, means to spin around in circles.

Sheqel (שקל sheqel, Strong's #8255): The currency in modern Israel is called a sheqel (or shekel). However, in Biblical Hebrew, the word sheqel was a unit of measurement, a weight of a material such as grain or silver.

Weave (שבץ shavats, Strong's #7660): Weaving is taking several different strands of material and intertwining them together to create one object, a basket. Another related verb is hhashav [str:2803] meaning to think or calculate which is taking several different ideas and intertwining them together to create one idea.

Stumbling-Block (מכשול mikh'shol, Strong's #4383): The Hebrew verb kashal [str:3782] means to topple over. This can be when a person who stumbles or the stones of a building that have toppled over. The noun mikh'shol [str:4383] is a ruin, the stone blocks of a wall or building that have been toppled down. These blocks are now removed from their original and functional position and are now ‘out of place' which can be a ‘stumbling-block' to others. You shall not curse the deaf or put a stumbling-block [mikh'shol] before the blind (Leviticus 19:14). This ‘stumbling-block' is a toppled over block that has been placed before a person to cause them to topple over as well.

Branch (מטה mateh, Strong's #4294): This word is used for the branch of a tree, whether on the tree or cut off of the tree. This word is also used for a staff which is a branch cut from a tree. This word is also used for a tribe as a branch of a family lineage.

Flint (כדכד kad'kod , Strong's #3539): A flint is a dark colored rock that when struck with iron creates sparks. This type of tool has been used since the beginning of man to create fire. A related word, kiydod [str: 3590] is the Hebrew word for "sparks."

Heel (עקב aqeyv , Strong's #6119): This noun comes from the verb aqav [str:6117] and means "to grab the heel." meaning "he grabs the heel." From this verb comes the name ya'aqov [str:3290] (Jacob, the second born of Isaac) meaning "he grabs the heel." He was given this name because he came out holding onto the heel of his brother Esau. Another word derived from this verbal root is the word ey-qev [str:6118] which is usually translated as "because" but through the idea of one person doing one thing "on the heels" of another person doing something else. This can be seen in the following verse; Because (eyqev) Caleb.... followed me fully... I will bring him into the land (Numbers 14:24).

Repeat (עוד ud , Strong's #5749): This verb means "to witness" in the sense of a person "repeating" what he heard or saw. The noun derived from this verb is eyd [str:5707] which is a "witness." Another word coming from this verb is the adverb od [str:5751] meaning "again." Hear, O Israel, YHWH is your Elohiym, YHWH is one (Deuteronomy 6:4). This verse does not contain the word ud however, in the Hebrew Bible this verse appears as;

שמע ישראל יהוה אלהינו יהוה אחד
The last letter of the first word (sh'ma meaning hear) and the last letter of the last word (ehhad meaning one), are written large. These two letters spell the word eyd, a witness, and this verse is considered a "witness" to all of Israel.

Pounce (עיט iyt , Strong's #5860): The fuller meaning of this word is a bird of prey (which is the noun ayit [str:5861] and is related to iyt) which swiftly falls down onto its prey (which is the noun aht [str:5706] but, written defectively in the Bible as ahd, is also related to iyt), tightly grabbing hold of it with its talons to squeeze the life out of it. Notice this imagery in 1 Samuel 14:32 and the people "pounced" the plunder and took the sheep and the cattle...

Swarm (ערב arov , Strong's #6157): Have you ever had a fly or other flying bug annoyingly and constantly zip around your head? Imagine millions of them and you have a pretty good idea of what the plague of "flies" were like in Egypt (Exodus 8:24). This word is related to other Hebrew words that mean a "mixture" and "darkness."

Item (כלי keliy , Strong's #3627): Have you ever counted how many "things" do you have in your house? Probably not but, it would easily be in the thousands. We are a culture of pack rats and have items for all kinds of functions (everything from utensils to tools to furniture) and many that don't even serve a function (such as nic nacs). The Hebrew word for an item, any item, is keliy. This seems like a pretty broad use of a word since it could be used for any of the thousands of "things" we have in our homes. But, the Ancient Hebrews had very few items and lived very simple lives so this word would only apply to the few "items" they possessed. The plural form of this word is appropriately translated as "stuff" in Genesis 45:20.

Idol (אליל eliyl , Strong's #457): In Leviticus 19:4 we read, Do not turn to idols (eliyl) or make for yourselves molten gods (Leviticus 19:4). An idol is a statue of an image of a god that is believed to have supernatural powers such as was used by many Semitic peoples around the Hebrews and by the Hebrews themselves at times. Interestingly, this word is also used in the following verse, As for you, you whitewash with lies; worthless (eliyl) physicians are you all (Job 13:4). An eliyl is anything that is considered to have value but in reality really has no value at all.

Walk (הלך halak , Strong's #1980): This word is used over 1300 times in the Bible and can be used in the sense of going, coming, carrying, bringing, leaving, following and even "walking." The original pictographs used to write this word is a picture of the palm of the hand and a staff. What is one going to do when they put a staff in the palm of the hand? Take a walk.

Crimson (תולעת tola'at , Strong's #8438): This word can represent the color crimson or the worm "coccus ilicis" which, when dried was ground into a powder and used as a dye for the color crimson. This worm also contains a chemical that is an anti-bacterial agent and was used in the formula for the ashes of the red heifer (Leviticus 14:4) which was used when someone came into contact with a dead body (a host for bacteria).

Ox (אלף eleph , Strong's #504): The ox was the "workhorse" of the Ancient Hebrews. Because of its strength it was used for pulling heavy loads and plowing fields. Another Hebrew word, eleph [str:505], is spelled and pronounced identically and means a "thousand" in the sense of mightyness from the idea of the strength of the eleph.

Stork (חסידה hhasiydah, Strong's #2624): A "stork" shows great kindness to its offspring and it was believed that the offspring showed kindness to the parents by caring for them in their old age. The masculine form of this word is hhasiyd [str:2623], often translated as "saint," is one who shows kindness to another. These two words are derived from the verbal root hhasad [str:2616] meaning "to show kindness."

Greece (יון yavan, Strong's #3120): For I have bent Judah as my bow; I have made Ephraim its arrow. I will brandish your sons, O Zion, over your sons, O Greece, and wield you like a warrior's sword. (Zechariah 9:13 RSV) The Hebrew name for Greece is yavan and is related to the Hebrew word yayin [str:3196] meaning wine - The land of wine? Yavan, the founder of the land of yavan, was the son of Yaphet, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:2).

Stone (אבן ehven, Strong's #68): In the land of Israel stones were a common building material. The Hebrew word even (stone) is related to several other words all related to "building." Banah [str:1129] is a verb meaning to build. Bohen [str:931] is the thumb, considered to the builder as the thumb is necessary for doing any work. Ben [str:1121] is the Hebrew word a son, the building stones of the family.

Leviathan (לויתן leev'yatan, Strong's #3882): Most Bible dictionaries will identify this "creature" as a crocodile, whale or snake. However, in Job 41 we given a detailed description of him, his great size, fire and smoke that comes from his nose and mouth and the impenetrable armor of his skin. The best word to describe this creature is a "dragon." It has been speculated by some, and I would agree with them that this is a large and ferocious dinosaur.

Shophar (שופר shophar, Strong's #7782): Made from a ram's horn, the shofar was used to call an assembly together or an army to battle. The shofar was used in ancient times, as well as in modern times, during the feasts of Lord and on the Shabbat. In Exodus 19:16, 19:19 and 20:18 the people heard a very loud shofar blast coming from the mountain of God which gave them great fear. This was also the instrument that was sounded when the walls of Jericho fell (Joshua 6:4).

Beard (זקן zaqeyn, Strong's #2206): In ancient Hebrew culture a long and white beard was a sign of age, maturity and wisdom. The verb form of this word, zaqeyn [str:2204] is the Hebrew meaning "to be old."

Herdman (בוקר boqer, Strong's #951): Ever heard the word "buckaroo?" This was a term from the old west meaning cowboy, coming from the Spanish word "vaquero." This Spanish word has a relationship with a Hebrew word with the same meaning. The Hebrew word "boqer" (sometimes pronounced as voqer) means "herdman" or one who works cattle and is derived from the word baqar [str:1241] meaning cattle.

Horse (סוס sus, Strong's #5483): Horses were not a common animal among the nomadic Hebrews as they were not well suited for the desert. Throughout the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) the only horses mentioned are the horses and chariots of Egypt. In Deuteronomy 17:16 God forbids any future king of Israel from accumulating large numbers of horses by going down to Egypt to acquire them.

Palm Leaf (כפה kippah, Strong's #3712): Because of the palm leaf's shape like that of a "palm" the Hebrew word kippah comes from the Hebrew word kaph [str:3709] meaning "palm." The word kippah is also the modern Hebrew word for the head covering worn by Jews, often called a yarmulke (the Yiddish word for a kippah), because of its bent shape like a palm.

Pasture (מרעה mireh, Strong's #4829): The word mireh is literally a "feeding place" and is derived from the verbal root ra'ah [str:7462] meaning "to feed." The participle form of this verb is ro'eh meaning "one who feeds" or "shepherd."

Pen (עט eyt, Strong's #5842): Ancient pens were made from reeds where one end was shaved down to form the writing part of the implement. The pen was dipped in ink for writing on papyrus or skins.

Rock (צור tsur, Strong's #6697): The Hebrew word tsur word is used 78 times in the Biblical text and is usually translated as "rock" but means something more than just a rock. This is a large rock outcropping that can be used as a defensive position, a stronghold or fortress. With God is my salvation and my glory: The rock (tsur) of my strength, and my refuge, is in God. (Psalm 62:7). A related word, matsur, is usually translated as a fortress.

Grab Tightly (נשק nashaq, Strong's #5401): The verb nashaq means "to grab hold tightly" as when grabbing hold of a weapon for battle as we see in Psalm 78:9. This same verb can also be used for an embrace such as we see in Genesis 29:11 where Yacov kisses Rahhel.

Good (טוב tov, Strong's #2896): What is good? From our modern western perspective this would be something that is pleasing to us but, from an Hebraic perspective the Hebrew word tov, usually translated as good, means something that is functional. A complex set of gears in a watch that functions together properly is tov. However, if the hears are not functioning properly then they are ra [str:7451], usually translated as evil or bad but more Hebraicly meaning dysfunctional. And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good (tov). And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. When God saw his creation it is not that it was "pleasing" to him rather, he saw that it functioned properly.

Dwell ( שכן shakhan, Strong's #7931): The verb shakhan means "to dwell," to stay or sit in one location for an indeterminate duration. Several nouns are derived from this verbal root including shekhen [str:7933] meaning a dwelling, shakhen [str:7934] meaning a dweller, and mishkhan [str:4908] meaning a dwelling place and used frequently in the Hebrew Bible for the "tabernacle," the place God dwells. Another word familiar to many but not actually a Biblical Hebrew word is shekhinah, the presence of God dwelling within the Temple.

Lamp (נר ner, Strong's #5216): A ner is an object that gives off light. A common style of ancient lamps were made from clay, had a reservoir for oil and a lip or hole on the edge for the wick. The wick absorbed the oil and the gas coming off the wick is lit giving light. The menorah [str:4501] of the tabernacle is a ner, in fact, notice that the word NeR is found within the word meNoRah.

River (נהר nahar, Strong's #5104): A river was considered a giver of life to the inhabitants of the Ancient Near East. Not only did it provide water to the desert but its annual flooding deposited water in the surrounding land for the production of crops. For this reason the Hebrew word nahar can be translated as a river or a flood.

Send (שלח shelahh, Strong's #7971): The Hebrew verb shelahh is used over 861 times in the Hebrew Bible and means "to send" in a wide variety of applications such as to shoot, cast out, stretch out, send away, throw, go and others. Several nouns are derived from this verbal root including shelahh [str:7973] meaning a projectile through the idea of "sending," shilu'ahh [str:7964] meaning a present which is sent to another and shul'hhan [str:7979] meaning a table where food is sent.

Holy (קדוש qadosh, Strong's #6918): Most of us have certain items in our homes that are used only during special occasion such as a set of fine china dinnerware or a special suit or dress. Something that is set aside for a special purpose is what is meant by the Hebrew word qadosh. The furnishings in the tabernacle were qadosh and would never be used for anything but for use in the tabernacle no more than one would take fine china on a camping trip. The nation of Israel was also qadosh, they were set aside from the other nations by God to do his work in the world. The word qadosh has been translated as "holy" but this word has taken on a new meaning of its own - a person who is pious and righteous, and this is not the true meaning of this word and demonstrates the need for getting back to the original meaning of Hebrew words.

Pass Through (עבר avar, Strong's #5674): The Hebrew verb avar means to "pass through" such as on a road through a region or to "cross over" a river to reach the other side. The proper name Eber is also this same three letter word with the same meaning to pass through or one who passes through. The word eevriym [str:5680], Hebrew for the Hebrew people, iterally meaning "ones from Eber" or "ones who pass through." The first person in the Bible identified as a Hebrew is Abram and in Genesis 12:6 we read that Abram "passed through the land (avar)." The word eevriyt, not used in the Biblical text, is the language of the eevriym.

Darkness (ערפל araphel, Strong's #6205): There are two words in the Hebrew translated as darkness. The most common is the word hhoshekh [str:2822] and means "darkness." The other word is araphel and means something more than just darkness. In Exodus 20:21 we read and Moses approached the araphel where God was. This darkness is a different darkness and may be alluded to in Exodus 10:21 which is the plague of darkness (hhoshekh) that could be felt. We often associate darkness with evil and light with good but, interestingly most times God appears in this araphel such as we saw in Exodus 20:21 but also in 2 Samuel 22:10, 1 Kings 8:12, Job 22:13, Psalm 97:2 and other places.

Happy (אשרי ashrey, Strong's #835): Blessed is the man who does not walk in the council of the wicked (Psalm 1:1). The word "blessed" is the Hebrew word ashrey and has the more concrete meaning of a cord stretched out straight. One who walks his life "straightly" has a good life or, as we might say, happy. Psalm 1:1 could be better translated as Happy is the man....

Write (כתב katav, Strong's #3789): Several methods of writing were used in ancient times. Wet clay was written on with a stylus, a pointed stick. Papyrus and leather were written on with reed pens using ink. Rocks were written on with chisels. Wood was written on with sharp objects.

Sabbath (שבת shabbat, Strong's #7676): The verb form of this word is shavat [str:7673] and literally means to cease or stop. It is first used in Genesis 2:2 where God "ceased" from his work. As ceasing from work is associated with resting some translate shavat as "rest." The noun form is the word shabbat and means a ceasing or stopping and is usually translated as Sabbath, the day God set aside for "resting" from our work (Exodus 20:10).

Box (ארון aron, Strong's #727): There are three "boxes" mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The box of the covenant, usually translated as the ark of the covennat, containing the objects of the covenant; the manna, Aaron's staff and the tablets. Another box mentioned in the Hebrew Bible is the box of Yoseph (Genesis 50:26) or, as most translations translate it, a coffin. The third is identified as a chest in 2 Kings 12:10.

Wine (יין yayin, Strong's #3196): The Hebrew word yayin means wine and may possibly be the origin of the word wine. The phrase "fruit of the vine" (see Matthew 26:29) is an idiom meaning wine. The Jewish blessing for the wine is "barukh atah adonai eloheynu melekh ha'olam borey periy hagafen" meaning "blessed are you O Lord our God, creator of the fruit of the vine."

Dog (כלב kelev, Strong's #3611): The Hebrew word kelev meaning dog is only mentioned 31 times in the Hebrew Bible but never refers to an actual dog. Some references to dogs are as analogies such as in Psalm 59:6 - They return at evening, they howl like a dog, And go round about the city. Many references to dogs portray them in a negative light - His watchmen are blind, they are all without knowledge; they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark; dreaming, lying down, loving to slumber. Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough (Isaiah 56:10,11).

Vineyard (כרם kerem, Strong's #3754): First mentioned in Genesis 9:20 Noah planted a vineyard for making wine. One of the oldest and most common fruits grown in the Ancient Near East is the grape and was predominately used for making wine. The grapes were also dried and pounded into cakes.

Lightning (ברק baraq, Strong's #1300): This word means a flash of light and is used for lightning but also the glistening of a metal weapon such as a sword (Deut 32:41) or spear (Nahum 3:3). In Psalm 144:6 lightning, through Hebrew parallelism, is seen as God's arrows.

Sling (קלע qela, Strong's #7050): The sling was a common weapon carried by shepherds to defend the flock however, modern visions of a sling is very different from these original weapons. The stones were generally 2 to 3 inches in diameter and carefully chipped into a perfect sphere. It was not slung in circles above the head but, slung in one arc in the same manner as a softball is pitched and can be thrown with some very surprising force, accuracy and distance. It is a deadly weapon and was used by most all ancient armies of the Ancient Near East.

Summit (ראשית reshiyt, Strong's #7225): The Hebrew root word rosh [str:7218] is the head of a man. Derived from this root is the word reshiyt meaning a summit, the head of a mountain. Hebrew words for time are the same words used for space. For instance the word qedem [str:6924] means east but can also mean ancient. The word reshiyt can also be the head of an event, the beginning. While we are very familiar with Genesis 1:1 - In the beginning, this should literally be translated as In the summit and probably more refers to the importance of the creation story rather than its time frame as the Ancient Hebrews were not as concerned with time as they were event oriented.

Milk (חלב hhalav, Strong's #2461): Goats are frequently raised by the nomadic peoples of the modern and ancient Near East. One product from the goats is their milk, a common food staple. This word is also related to the word hhelev [str:2459] meaning fat because of the high fat content in goat's milk. The milk was also turned into cheese, or more correctly curds, by separating out the water in the milk.

Fire (אש eysh, Strong's #784): As the Hebrews were a nomadic people their lifestyle is much the same as when we go camping and what camp is not complete without a fire. Not only is it used for camping but a place where family and friends get together to tell stories, play music and just relax after a long day.

Fly (עוף ooph, Strong's #5774): This verb means 'to fly' while the noun form, pronounced oph [str:5775] but spelled the same, is a 'flyer' and can be a bird, bat or insect, anything that flies. Hebrew commonly uses word puns, words of similar sounds together. Genesis 1:20 is a good example where it says ve'oph ye'oph which means "flyers flying."

Righteous (צדיק tsadiyq, Strong's #6662): The Hebrew language is a very concrete language meaning that each word is a description of action of a person or object unlike our modern language which are abstract. The word righteous is an example of an abstract it has no connection to something physical. The Hebrew word tsadiyq does not mean 'righteous' in an abstract way but in the action of staying on course or following the path.

Bee (דבורה devorah, Strong's #1682): The root of devorah is davar [str:1696]. This root literally means 'to arrange in order,' usually in the sense of arranging words in an order to make a sentence or to 'speak.' A colony of bees are insects living in a completely ordered society hence its connection to the idea of order.

House (בית beyt, Strong's #1004): The word beyt can mean the 'house' the family resides in or the family itself which resides in one 'house.' This word is also the second letter of the Hebrew aleph-beyt. The word alphabet comes from the first two Greek letter - alpha and beta which actually come from the first two Hebrew letters aleph and beyt so, in Hebrew it is called the aleph-beyt rather than the alphabet.

Ark (תבה teyvah, Strong's #8392): In Biblical Hebrew an ark is any floating vessel. Two types of 'arks' are found in the Bible, the ark of Noah, a large wooden ship and the ark of Moses, a floating basket used for holding fish live but used for the infant Moses when he was sent out on the Nile river.

Reed (סוף suph, Strong's #5488): Reeds commonly grow on the banks of rivers. This word is used in Exodus 2:3 for the reeds that were on the edge of the Nile. This word is also the name of the sea that Moses parted, the Yam Suph which translates to the 'Reed Sea' but mistakenly called the 'Red Sea.' Reeds were used for making twine, rope, baskets and paper.

Psalm (מזמור mizmor, Strong's #4210): The verbal root zamar [str:2167] means to make music by 'plucking' a musical instrument. Music or melody is the Hebrew noun mizmor and is the word for a Psalm a song accompanied by a stringed musical instrument. The verbal root zamar also means to 'pluck' fruit.

Religion (ארח orahh, Strong's #734): One word that is probably most assiciated with the Bible is religion. In reality there is no Biblical Hebrew word for religion and you will never find the word religion in any translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tenach/Old Testament). To the Ancient Hebrews, their religion was their lifestyle and covered all aspects of life from worship to using the latrine (see Deuteronomy 23:13,14). The Hebrew word orahh can mean a path used by travelers as well as the path of life, a lifestyle.

Knife (מאכלת ma'akhelet, Strong's #3979): The Hebrews did not eat with forks or spoons but with knifes. The word ma'akhelet comes from the root akhal [str:398] meaning 'to eat.' The knife was a very versatile instrument as it was used in preparing and eating foods, cleaning skins for leather, carving wood or bone and for self defense. Ancient Knives were made bone, metal, flint or bronze.

Fruit (פרי p'riy, Strong's #6529): The ancient parent root P.R. is the origin of the Hebrew word for fruit but also too many of our 'fruit' words; PeaR, aPRicot, PRune and PeRsimmon. When reversed we have gRaPe. It is also common for one letter to be exchanged for a similar sounding letter as words are passed from one language to another. One common exchange is the exchange between the R and the L which adds to the list of 'fruit' words coming from the P.R. root - apPLe and PLum. Another exchange is the P and B - BeRry and RhuBarb (reversed). The exchange of the P and F brings us back to the word FRuit.

Nose (אף aph, Strong's #639): The Hebrew word aph is an excellent example of how a word can be used in a literal and figurative way. Aph is literally a nose but also used figuratively as anger as a person in anger flares his nostrils. This also demonstrates how an abstract concept (anger) is related to a picture of action unlike modern languages where abstract words are commonly used with no connection to the concrete.

Behold (הינה hiyneyh, Strong's #2009): Behold is a common word found in the Bible (1275 times in the KJV) but not really used in our English language today. Being an abstract word it does not really convey the Hebraicness of the word hiyneyh. Each Hebrew word is giving a picture of a action and this word is no different. The original Hebraic meaning of hiyneyh is best described as one pointing out something important, we would say "wow, look at that."

New Moon (חודש hhodesh, Strong's #2320): In Ancient Israel the first crescent of the new moon marked the first day of the month. For this reason the word hhodesh can mean the 'new moon' and it is also the word for 'month.' The related noun hhadash [str:2319] (masculine) and hhadashah [str:2319] (feminine) mean 'new' and the verb hhadash [str:2318] means to 'make new' or 'renew.'

Sky (שמים shamayim, Strong's #8064): Often translated as heaven or heavens. There is some debate over the etymology (origins and roots) of this word. The "sh" may be a prefix meaning "like" followed by the word mayim [str:4325] meaning "water" - like water. It may be the plural form of a noun derived from the verbal root shamam [str:8074] meaning desolate in the sense of a dry wind blowing over the land drying it out. It may also be the plural form of the word shem [str:8034] meaning name but more literally breath (in Hebrew thought the name of a person is his breath since the breath is seen as the character of the individual).

Sack (שק saq, Strong's #8242): And Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain, and to replace every man's money in his sack (saq) (Genesis 42:25). Isn't it interesting that the Hebrew word saq means sack? Because so many Hebrew words are similar to English, or should I say so many English words 'come from' Hebrew, it helps to associate Hebrew words with English when learning the vocabulary.

Brother (אח ahh, Strong's #251): The original pictographic script of Hebrew used a picture for each letter. This word would have had the picture of an ox head (aleph) representing strength and a wall (hhet) representing protection. This Hebrew word (ahh) has two meanings. The first is a "hearth," which was a circle of rocks that enclosed the fire to protect it and contain it. The second is "the brother." The brothers of the family, like the rocks of the hearth, surrounded the family inside camp to protect it from enemies. Both the rocks of the hearth and the brothers of the family are the "strong protectors."

Date (דבש devash, Strong's #1706): This word is usually translated as "honey" but literally means "a thick sticky substance" and probably refers to dates, a common fruit in the Near East. The phrase flowing with milk and honey is probably speaking about a land flowing with milk (probably from the prolific goat herds) and dates.

Form (יצר yatsar, Strong's #3335): This Hebrew verb means to press and form into shape as a potter does with clay. The participle form of this verb means "potter" as in Isaiah 64:7 - "Yet, O LORD, thou art our Father; we are the clay, and thou art our potter; we are all the work of thy hand." This verb is also used in Genesis 2:7 for when God "formed" man - "then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being."

Tent (אהל ohel, Strong's #168): Every nomadic culture around the globe constructs tents based on two basic requirements; environment and available material. The Plains Indians of North America lived in cold environments with deer skins available in large quantity. Their shelter of choice was the tee-pee. The Hebrews constructed tents out of spun goat's hair from their herds. Because of the wind and blowing sand they constructed low profile tents. The sides could be rolled up to allow for circulation in the heat of the day and the black hair absorbed the heat of the day to keep it warmer during the night.

Star (כוכב kokav, Strong's #3556): We of course know that stars are extremely large balls of gas trillions and trillions of miles out in space but, how did the Ancient Hebrew perceive the stars. When reading the Bible it must be from their perspective not ours. The Hebrews, being nomads, lived in black goat hair tents. The hair fabric had pinholes of light and when looking up at the tent roof it looked just like the night sky. This is alluded to in Isaiah 40:22 - [God] stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.

Grave (קבר qever, Strong's #6913): The grave was commonly a cave owned by the family where its members were laid after death (see Genesis 49:30,31). This is often referred to in the Bible such as in the following verse; And David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David (1 Kings 2:10). The verb form, qavar [str:6912], means 'to bury.'

Flesh (בסר basar, Strong's #1320): The word basar literally means "meat" such as in Exodus 12:8 but can also mean the whole of a person or animal such as in Genesis 6:13. A closely related word, besorah [str:1309], the feminine form of basar, means "good news" or "gospel." In the Ancient Hebrew culture a fatted animal is slaughtered for a feast at times of "good news" hence, the connection between basar and besorah.

Camel (גמל gamal, Strong's #1581): The English word camel is from the Greek word kamelos which in turn is from the Hebrew word gamal. The camel was a common animal in the herds of the Nomads of both the Ancient and Modern times. A nomads wealth was measured by the size of his herds of livestock including camels (see Genesis 30:43). Camels were a joice beast of burden because of their ability to carry large loads and being able to travel long distances without water.

Well (באר be'er, Strong's #875): Ancient wells were holes dug down in the ground to the water table. The well was usually covered over with a large rock to keep debris out and prevent people from falling in. The stone is removed and a bucket tied to a rope was lowered to retrieve the water. . As nomads, the Ancient Hebrews knew the locations of many wells in the area of their journeys. City wells were usually inside the city walls so that its inhabitants had access to water during sieges. Some wells were so large a winding staircase was cut in the sides of the well for people to descend down into the well. In the case of the Siloam well, located outside the city, a tunnel from inside the city to the well was cut through solid rock.

Scroll (ספר sepher, Strong's #5612): Books are a fairly recent invention. In ancient times texts were written down on square sheets of skin or papyrus (made from reeds and the origin of our word paper). Multiple sheets would then be sown together creating one long sheet called a scroll. This long sheet was then rolled up and placed in a leather sleeve or clay jar for storage. In caves near the Dead Sea in Israel hundreds of these scrolls were discovered which included texts of the Tenach (Old Testament) as well as non-Biblical texts.

Plow-point (את eyt, Strong's #855): The metal plow-point was attached to the plow to cut furrows, as marks, in the soil. The two Hebrew letters in this word are the aleph and the tav and in the original pictographic script the aleph was a picture of an ox head, the plow puller, and the tav a cross, representing a mark - The Ox of the mark. This same word is also used over 7,000 in the Hebrew Bible, but never translated, as a grammatical tool to identify the direct object of a verb. For instance, Genesis 1:1 reads "In the beginning God created eyt the heavens and the eyt the earth" where the words heavens and earth are the direct object of the verb created (bara [str:1254]). Think of this grammatical tool as a plow cutting a furrow connecting the verb with its direct object. This word is also uniquely spelled with the first (aleph) and last (tav) letters of the Hebrew alphabet - the beginning and the end.

Wall (חיל hheyil, Strong's #2426): Many of the cities mentioned in the Bible were surrounded by a large wall to keep an enemy from entering the city. Because an army performs this same function they are also called a "wall," or in Hebrew a hheyil. Hhayil (a closely related word) is the modern Hebrew word for the "army" of Israel.

Thumb (בהן bohen, Strong's #931): The thumb was identified as the "builder" because of its universal need for "building." This Hebrew word is not only related to the idea of building but the word bohen itself is related to the Hebrew word meaning to build - banah [str:1129].

Dry ground ( יבשה yabashah, Strong's #3004): To understand the original Hebraic concrete meaning of English abstract words used in translations of the Bible it helps to look at the roots of the Hebrew word and other words derived from the same root. For instance, the word shame is an abstract word but is related to a dried up ground. When a lake or pond dries up, all of the organic matter begins to decay and stink, which is the Hebrew word ba'ash [str:887], derived from the same root as yabashah. The word bushah [str:955], also derived from the same root, is translated as "shame," but is Hebraicly understood as something someone does that really "stinks."

Horn (קרן qeren, Strong's #7161): The horns of animals were very versatile objects. They were used as trumpets and even a weapon in war. They were used to store liquids such as olive oil, used for foods as well as medicine. In many ancient cultures kings wore horns as a sign of their power, in fact, the points on modern day crowns are holdover representations of horns and in addition, our word crown comes from the Hebrew word qeren.

Ground (אדמה adamah, Strong's #127): Because of the reddish color of soil this Hebrew word is derived out of the Hebrew parent root dam [str:1818] meaning blood. Another word derived from this root is adom [str:122] meaning "red" and is also another name for Esau, the brother of Jacob (Genesis 25:30). Another related word is adam [str:120] meaning "man," from the blood that runs through his veins but also because adam, the first man, was taken from the adamah and his dam will return to the adamah.

Ram (איל ayil, Strong's #352): This Hebrew word is usually translated as a ram but also as an oak tree. Because our modern western minds associate an object with an image we cannot comprehend how the Ancient Hebrew/Eastern mind saw these two objects as similar. The Ancient Hebrews associated an object with its function rather than its appearance. The functional meaning of ayil is "a strong one" and the ram is the strong one of the herd and the oak, the hardest of woods, is the strong one of the forest.

Fish (דג dag, Strong's #1709): In the original pictographic script used to write Hebrew, and other Semitic languages, this word was written with the picture of a door, the letter dalet, representing a "back and forth movement" and the picture of a "foot," the letter gimel. When these two letters are combined we have "the back and forth movement of the foot/tail," a perfect image for a "fish." Interestingly, the "a" in the Hebrew word dag is pronounced with a short 'a' and would therefore be pronounced like our word "dog," another animal with a "tail that moves back and forth." Because of the abundance of fish caught in nets this word is the origin of another Hebrew word - dagah [str:1711] meaning "abundance."

City (ער ar, Strong's #6145): Do cities sometime appear as 'dark' places? The Ancient Hebrews seemed to think so. The Hebrew parent root ar can mean a 'city' or an 'enemy.' Take a look at these other Hebrew words, all with the ar root within them. Ariyph is a cloud; sa'ar is a storm; arav is to grow dark; ur is blind; ya'ar is a forest; iyr is a city; sho'ar is offensive or vile and arphel (origins of awful?) is a thick darkness.

Bread (לחם lechem, Strong's #3899): The dough is placed on the table and it is kneaded by hitting it with the fists, rolling it back and forth, picking it up and turning it over, and... Kind of sounds like a fight doesn't it? Actually, the Hebrew noun lechem meaning "bread" comes from the verbal root lacham [str:3898], same Hebrew spelling as lechem) and means to 'fight.' The place called Bethlehem is actually two Hebrew words beyt [str:1004] meaning house and lechem meaning bread - house of bread. In Genesis 3:19 we read, In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread. Could this be because we have to fight the ground to bring up the crop, fight the grain to remove the husk from the seeds, fight the seeds to turn them into flour and fight the dough to make the bread?

Proverb (משל mashal, Strong's #4912): A ruler is someone or something that defines a standard of measure. This can be a stick with incremental lines on it for measuring or a person who defines the standard by which people live by. The Hebrew verb meaning 'to rule' is mashal and when used in the participle form it means a ruler, or one who rules. (Possibly the origin of our word marshal?) The noun form, also pronounced mashal is a parable, or proverb. The function of a parable or proverb is to define a standard of measure that one is to live by. For example, In all thy ways acknowledge him, And he will direct thy paths (Proverbs 3:6).

Bird (צפור tsipor, Strong's #6833): This Hebrew word is a generic term for all birds. This word is also the name of Balak's son Tsipor (Latinized as Zipor) and Moses' wife Tsiporah (Latinized as Zipporah, the 'ah' is the feminine suffix). The study of 'Edenics' is looking for connections between Hebrew and other languages. One example of this is the similarity between the Hebrew word tsipor (bird) and the word sparrow (a species of bird).

Ear (אוזן ozen, Strong's #241): This is the Hebrew word for the 'ear' (see Exodus 21:6). A Hebrew's speech is often strange to us so the translators 'fix' the text so that it can be more 'modern' but in some cases the original Hebrew is much more interesting. For instance, in Numbers 11:1 the KJV says "And when the people complained it displeased the LORD." The Hebrew literally reads "And the people were murmuring and it was bad in the ear of Yahweh." The verb related to this is azan [str:238] meaning 'to give an ear' or 'to hear.' Interestingly, the Hebrew word for a balance is mozen [str:3976], derived from ozen. Why would a balance be related to the Hebrew word for an 'ear?' Could the ancients have understood that a person's inner 'ear' included a mechanism for determining balance?

Wind (רוח ru'ahh, Strong's #7307): In Hebrew thought the wind can be many things. It is the wind that blows in the sky, it can be the breath of man or animals and it is also the breath of God. In Hebrew thought your breath is your character or essence it is what makes you, you. The breath, or wind of God is his character or essence. In the same way that our breath is like a wind, God is like a wind. God is not an individual person that exists as we do, he is everywhere just like the wind is everywhere. Many times the Hebrew word ru'ahh is translated as spirit but this abstract term takes us away from the real concrete meaning of the Hebrew word. Rather than looking at God as a spirit, we can read the text more Hebraicly if we replace the word spirit with wind.

Tree (עץ eyts, Strong's # 6086: When we think of a tree an image comes to mind but, when the Hebrews who wrote the Bible think of a tree an action comes to mind. This is one of the foundational differences between Ancient Hebrew and Modern Western thought. The Hebrew word eyts represents a tree but more the action of lifting up with support, the function of the trunk and branches of the tree. Other words related to this one also have this same active meaning. The word atseh [str:6096] is the spine, eytsah [str:6098] is a council and etsem [str:6106] is the word for bones.

Amen (אמן amen, Strong's #543): World wide this is the most famous of all Hebrew words. But, do we know what it means? This word comes from the root aman [str:539], pronounced ah-mahn, and means to be firmly planted in place such as can be seen Isaiah 22:23 which speaks of a "nail fastened to a secure place." The noun form, amen, pronounced ah-mehn, is used in the Biblical text by persons who are affirming a statement. In other words, they are saying I am firmly agreeing with what has been said. The next time we say amen, let's think about what we are agreeing to.

Pharoah (פרעה paroh, Strong's #6547): The Hebrew pronunciation of this word is par-oh, unless the previous Hebrew letter, as a prefix or the final letter of the previous word, is a vowel, then it is is phar-oh. It is believed that this is an Egyptian word meaning "great house." The Egyptian Paroh is also refered to as a king, melek [str:4428] in the Hebrew Bible. The pronunciation pharoah actually comes from the ancient Greek translation called the Septuagint (LXX). In 1974 the mummy of Ramsees II was deteriorating and needed to be flown from the Cairo Museum to Paris. Did you know that even a mummy needs a passport? Ramses II was issued an Egyptian passport that listed his occupation as "King (deceased)."

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